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Draganits E.,University of Vienna | Doneus M.,University of Vienna | Doneus M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology | Gansum T.,Kulturarv | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary International

The Nordic Iron Age and Viking Age royal burial site of Borre on the western coast of the Oslofjord in Norway is an exceptional archaeological site in Northern Europe. The burial mounds, associated archaeological structures as well as geomorphological features have been analysed by a 1×1m digital terrain model derived from airborne laser scanning. The interpretation of this data used different derivates of the digital elevation model including hillshade, slope map, local relief model and their combination. Additionally, ground penetrating radar profiles have been measured to investigate the internal structure of selected micro-topographic features. Based on the high-resolution topographic data, four smaller burial mounds were added to those previously known. Scandinavia is strongly affected by ongoing post-glacial isostatic recovery and, consequently, a sequence of elevated beach ridges were documented within the burial site down to the present shoreline. Local sea-level reconstructions in the Oslofjord indicate that the burial site of Borre was located close to the shoreline in the period of its use when the local sea-level was 3.5-5m higher than today. Two prominent ridges between 4.5 and 0m above present day sea-level are interpreted as Viking Age jetties facilitating safe landing on an otherwise unprotected coast. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Lindblom I.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU
Environmental Impact Assessment Review

The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage.The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark.The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods.The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA.The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years of development and improvements after implementation. This is important in order to gain acceptance from the bureaucracy, especially from the Cultural Heritage authorities and local population. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Olstad T.M.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU | Stornes J.M.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU | Bartholin T.S.,The National Museum of Denmark
European Journal of Science and Theology

The paper deals with the use of dendrochronology for dating and linking a small group of late medieval triptychs in Norway. After a short introduction to dendrochronology, the triptychs are described as well as the photographic dendrochronological examination method used in the project. The results of the dendrochronological examination correspond with the dating given to the triptychs by art historians. © 2015, Ecozone, OAIMDD. Source

Andersen E.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU | Jernaes N.K.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU
European Journal of Science and Theology

The Passion Clock is a religious motif that spread during the 18th century in Scandinavian countries. They were placed in homes and in churches for devotion. Paintings of the Passion Clocks are only known in Denmark and Norway. However, the motif exists in Sweden as woodcuts, but strangely not as paintings. Today approximately 40 paintings are known in museums, churches and private collections, all painted in the middle of the 18th century. The Passion Clock depicts Christ on the cross in a semi-circular scroll with Roman numbers. Each number is connected to 13 medallions with scenes from the Passion of Christ. The Passion Clock functioned as an instrument in Lutheran devotion, like a step-by-step meditation of the Passion of Christ, in a way similar to the Catholic devotional practice of the „Way of the Cross‟. Seven known versions of the Passion Clock are in Norwegian churches today. Condition assessments were undertaken on four of the paintings, all of them situated in the eastern part of Norway. The results show that the state of conservation of the Passion Clocks in Norwegian churches vary a lot, from paintings that is in need of no conservation treatment to paintings that is in need of extensive treatment. The painting technique is quite similar in the four versions, but there are local variations due to the artist‟s personal skills. © 2015, Ecozone, OAIMDD. Source

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