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Sun-Waterhouse D.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Functional foods and their health benefits beyond individual nutrients present challenges to the traditional 'nutrition' approach to foods. Epidemiological studies suggest that regular or increased consumption of fruits may promote general health and well-being as well as reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Therefore, a broad range of research amongst academic, industry and government institutes has been stimulated in attempts to add the goodness of fruits into popular consumer foods. This article provides a brief overview of the research opportunities in the emerging functional foods area, with an emphasis on fruit-derived products. Based on recent research in the fruit-based functional food area, a structured approach for designing and developing functional finished products is presented. Included are the technical challenges and their associated solutions during food design, formulation, processing and storage. A consumer-oriented food product development process is highlighted. Controlling the interactions among the targeted bioactives and other food components during food processing, handling and storage is the key to ensure that a stable and appealing functional food is produced. Manipulating the beneficial synergies among food ingredients, and among food formulation and processing methods, has the potential to lead to substantial food innovations. © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Ares G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Jaeger S.R.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

Interest in methodologies for sensory product characterization by consumers is increasing, and check-all-that-apply questions (CATA or checklists) have gained some popularity. This research studied bias pertaining to: (i) the order in which sensory attributes are placed within a CATA question, and (ii) the order of a sensory CATA question within an extended product assessment ballot (including product-elicited emotions, purchase intention and overall liking). In three studies including 335 consumers and using fresh fruit as samples, evidence of attribute order bias was established. In each study, two ballot versions were used in a between-subjects design. Primacy effects linked to attribute salience could explain some of the results. For example, differences in frequency of use of an attribute would be higher on the ballot version where it was placed nearer to the top of the list. However, this type of bias was not sufficient to explain all observed effects. It was found that a random ordering of sensory attributes in a CATA question reduced the total frequency of usage of terms compared with when attributes were grouped with similar terms (e.g. flavour/taste terms grouped together and texture terms grouped together). Some evidence was obtained to suggest that listing sensory attributes in the order that approximate the time when they would be perceived during the course of consuming the sample is necessary unless consumers are given explicit instructions to recall all sensory perceptions and evaluate attributes on the list from that point of reference. It was also found that conclusions regarding differences between samples depended on which ballot version was used. Few order effects were uncovered when the sensory CATA question was prior to or subsequent to other product evaluations (product-elicited emotions and purchase intention). There was no significant effect on hedonic scores of the tested products linked to the attribute order within the sensory CATA question. This research can help to inform best practices in the design of CATA questions for sensory product characterization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Suckling D.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Emerging concern highlighting non-target impacts in classical biological control of arthropods and weeds has heightened awareness of these risks but raised the risk of obscuring beneficial effects. This review applied a retrospective assessment of the benefits from weed biological control in New Zealand, using the framework designed for pre-clearance assessment of classical biological control. Of those agents released which can be assessed because of sufficient passage of time (n=. 33), their impact has been assessed according to the modern criteria for judging beneficial effects used by New Zealand's Environmental Protection Authority (negligible, minimal, minor, moderate, major and massive). Cases with negligible benefit (n=. 12) included failures to establish self-sustaining populations, while cases with minimal benefit (n=. 11) included some where predation reduced the realized benefit of established organisms. The remaining cases offered massive (n=. 2), major (n=. 1), moderate (n=. 5) or minor (n=. 2) benefit. Suppression of ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn, 1754), and St. Johns wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) were considered to be massive in magnitude, offering long term ecosystem benefits of controlling invasive weeds. Improved clarity around risk and benefit could help improve the quality of debate on biological control, and the five step scale used in New Zealand may prove more widely useful elsewhere. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Mitchell J.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
Sensors | Year: 2010

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors utilize refractive index changes to sensitively detect mass changes at noble metal sensor surface interfaces. As such, they have been extensively applied to immunoassays of large molecules, where their high mass and use of sandwich immunoassay formats can result in excellent sensitivity. Small molecule immunosensing using SPR is more challenging. It requires antibodies or high-mass or noble metal labels to provide the required signal for ultrasensitive assays. Also, it can suffer from steric hindrance between the small antigen and large antibodies. However, new studies are increasingly meeting these and other challenges to offer highly sensitive small molecule immunosensor technologies through careful consideration of sensor interface design and signal enhancement. This review examines the application of SPR transduction technologies to small molecule immunoassays directed to different classes of small molecule antigens, including the steroid hormones, toxins, drugs and explosives residues. Also considered are the matrix effects resulting from measurement in chemically complex samples, the construction of stable sensor surfaces and the development of multiplexed assays capable of detecting several compounds at once. Assay design approaches are discussed and related to the sensitivities obtained. © 2010 by the authors.

Suckling D.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Brockerhoff E.G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2010

Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the light brown apple moth (LBAM), is an important leafroller pest with an exceptionally wide host range that includes many horticultural crops and other woody and herbaceous plants. LBAM is native to southeastern Australia but has invaded Western Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, much of England, and in 2007, it was confirmed as established in California. The discovery of this pest in California has led to a major detection and regulatory effort because of concerns about economic and environmental impacts. Its recent discovery in Sweden is also of note. LBAM has often been intercepted on imports of fruit and other plant parts, and it has the potential to become a successful invader in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. The importance of the insect has prompted development of classical biological control programs together with a wide variety of other management interventions that can be used in integrated pest management or integrated pest eradication. © 2010 by Annual Reviews All rights reserved.

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