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Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
Cognitive Processing | Year: 2015

The stabilization of human cognition via feedback from embedding social and cultural contexts is a dynamic process deeply intertwined with it, constituting, in a sense, the riverbanks directing the flow of a stream of generalized consciousness at different scales: Cultural norms and social interaction are synergistic with individual and group cognition and their disorders. A canonical failure mode in atomistic cultures is found to be a ‘ground state’ collapse well represented by atomistic models of economic interaction that are increasingly characterized as divorced from reality by heterodox economists. That is, high rates of psychopathic and antisocial personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder emerge as culture-bound syndromes particular to Western or Westernizing societies, or to those undergoing social disintegration. © 2015, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
BioSystems | Year: 2011

Tlusty's topological rate distortion analysis of the genetic code is applied to protein symmetries and protein folding rates. Unlike the genetic case, numerous thermodynamically accessible 'protein folding codes' can be identified from empirical classifications. Folding rates follow from a topologically driven rate distortion argument, a model that can, in principle, be extended to intrinsically disordered proteins. The elaborate cellular regulatory machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum and heat shock proteins is needed to prevent transition between the various thermodynamically 'natural' sets of hydrophobic-core protein conformations, and its corrosion by aging would account for the subsequent onset of many protein folding disorders. These results imply markedly different evolutionary trajectories for the genetic and protein folding codes, and suggest that the 'protein folding code' is really a complicated composite, distributed across protein production and a cellular, or higher, regulatory apparatus acting as a canalizing catalyst that drives the system to converge on particular transitive components within a significantly larger 'protein folding groupoid'. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
Connection Science | Year: 2016

The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive – and likely unsustainable – public policy. © 2016 [New York state office of mental health]. Published by Taylor & Francis.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology | Year: 2016

Chemical exposures, pre- and neonatal infections, psychosocial stress, and the cross-generational cultural and epigenetic impacts of these and other toxicants become an integrated, sometimes synergistic, signal that can overwhelm essential neurodevelopmental regulation. We characterize that dynamic through statistical models based on the asymptotic limit theorems of control and information theories. Schizophrenia and autism emerge as two different ‘phases’ of pathological neurodevelopmental ‘condensations’ that impair the dynamic, shifting global workspace of normal mental function. © 2016 Society for Mathematical Biology


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2016

Applying biological versions of the Data Rate Theorem and the Arrhenius reaction rate relation, it becomes clear that the search-and-response feedback of developmental selection associated with phenotypic plasticity requires a significant rate of metabolic free energy. Too rapid change in environmental conditions, often coupled with decline in available sources of metabolic free energy, leads to highly punctuated local extinction events. The observed dynamic is likely to be that the animal seems to adapt to environmental alterations for a long time, but then, and quite suddenly, developmental selection fails, leading to local extirpation of the reproducing population. Conversely, mosaicking, by imposing selection demands associated with diversity in time, space, and mode - as in traditional and conservation agricultures - can create energy barriers limiting the evolution and spread of pest or pathogen populations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
BioSystems | Year: 2014

A recent line of study exploring statistical models of punctuated global broadcasts associated with attention states has focused on the evolutionary exaptation of the inevitable signal crosstalk between related sets of unconscious cognitive modules (UCM). This work invokes a groupoid treatment of the equivalence classes arising from information sources 'dual', in a formal sense, to the UCM, via a standard spontaneous symmetry breaking/lifting methodology abducted from statistical physics. A related approach involves an index theorem based on a stochastic empirical Onsager-like entropy-analog gradient model. Surprisingly, similar arguments may apply to 'fuzzy groupoid' generalizations likely to better fit biological complexities. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2014

Newly developed necessary conditions statistical models from cognitive theory are applied to generalisation of the data-rate theorem for real-time control systems. Rather than graceful degradation under stress, automatons and man/machine cockpits appear prone to characteristic sudden failure under demanding fog-of-war conditions. Critical dysfunctions span a spectrum of phase transition analogues, ranging from a ground state of 'all targets are enemies' to more standard data-rate instabilities. Insidious pathologies also appear possible, akin to inattentional blindness consequent on overfocus on an expected pattern. Via no-free-lunch constraints, different equivalence classes of systems, having structure and function determined by 'market pressures', in a large sense, will be inherently unreliable under different but characteristic canonical stress landscapes, suggesting that deliberate induction of failure may often be relatively straightforward. Focusing on two recent military case histories, these results provide a caveat emptor against blind faith in the current path-dependent evolutionary trajectory of automation for critical real-time processes. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
BioSystems | Year: 2011

The recursive, self-referential, character of evolutionary process can be restated through a 'language' model in which genes, gene expression, and environment are represented as interacting information sources. The approach uses the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to provide powerful necessary conditions for punctuated evolutionary transitions that can themselves be expressed as highly structured large deviations having their own grammar and syntax. The methodology defines, in a sense, the riverbanks that constrain, but do not determine, the self-dynamic stream of evolutionary process. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
BioSystems | Year: 2010

A spontaneous symmetry breaking argument is applied to the problem of protein folding, via a rate distortion analysis of the relation between genome coding and the final condensation of the protein molten globule that is, in spirit, analogous to Tlusty's (2007) exploration of the evolution of the genetic code. In the 'energy' picture, the average distortion between codon message and final protein structure, under constraints driven by evolutionary selection, serves as a temperature analog, so that low values limit the possible distribution of protein forms, producing the canonical folding funnel. A dual 'developmental' perspective sees the rate distortion function itself as the temperature analog, and permits incorporation of chaperons or toxic exposures as catalysts, driving the system to different possible outcomes or affecting the rate of convergence. The rate distortion function appears constrained by the availability of metabolic free energy, with implications for prebiotic evolution, and a nonequilibrium empirical Onsager treatment provides an adaptable statistical model that can be fitted to data, in the same manner as a regression equation. In sum, mechanistic models of protein folding fail to account for the observed spectrum of protein folding and aggregation disorders, suggesting that a biologically based cognitive paradigm describing folding will be needed for understanding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. The developmental formalism introduced here may contribute substantially to such a paradigm. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wallace R.,The New York State Psychiatric Institute
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2016

Evolutionary process has been selected for inherently unstable systems in higher animals that can react swiftly to changing patterns of threat or opportunity, for example blood pressure, the immune response, and gene expression. However, these require continual strict regulation: uncontrolled blood pressure is fatal, immune cells can attack ‘self’ tissues, and improper gene expression triggers developmental disorders. Consciousness in particular demands high rates of metabolic free energy to both operate and regulate the fundamental biological machinery: both the ‘stream of consciousness’ and the ‘riverbanks’ that confine it to useful realms are constructed and reconstructed moment-by-moment in response to highly dynamic internal and environmental circumstances. We develop powerful necessary conditions models for such phenomena based on the Data Rate Theorem linking control and information theories in the context of inherent instability. The synergism between conscious action and its regulation underlies the ten-fold higher rate of metabolic energy consumption in human neural tissues and implies a close, culturally modulated relation between sleep disorders and certain psychopathologies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

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