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The New School is a university in New York City, United States, located mostly in Greenwich Village. From its founding in 1919 by progressive New York educators, and for most of its history, the university was known as the The New School for Social Research. Between 1997 and 2005 it was known as New School University. The university and each of its colleges were renamed in 2005.The university is renowned for its teaching and its open intellectual environment. It has also launched or housed a range of important institutions such as the international think tank World Policy Institute, the Vera List Center for Art and Politics, the India China Institute, the Observatory on Latin America, and the Center for New York City Affairs. It also hosts the prestigious annual National Book Awards. Parsons The New School for Design is the university's highly competitive art school.Some 9,300 students are enrolled in graduate and undergraduate degree programs, organized into seven different schools, which teach a variety of disciplines, including the social science, liberal arts, humanities, architecture, fine arts, design, music, drama, finance, psychology and public policy.The graduate school of The New School began in 1933 as the University in Exile, an emergency rescue program for threatened scholars in Europe. In 1934 it was chartered by the New York state board of regents and its name was changed to the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, a name it would keep until 2005 when it was renamed New School for Social Research. Wikipedia.

Nissan M.H.,The New School
Cancer Discovery | Year: 2013

Resistance to RAF inhibitors is generally accompanied by reactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. SCH772984, a selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of ERK1 and ERK2, is effective in BRAF-mutant models in which resistance is the result of ERK reactivation. SCH772984 may also have a role in the treatment of tumors in which ERK is dysregulated by mutant RAS, NF1, or activated receptor tyrosine kinases, settings in which current RAF inhibitors are ineffective. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Ivashkiv L.B.,The New School
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2013

Macrophage polarization refers to development of a specific phenotype important for tissue homeostasis or host defense in response to environmental cues. Environmental factors that induce macrophage polarization include cytokines and microbial factors produced by pathogens or commensal microbiota. Signaling pathways utilized by these polarizing factors have been well characterized, but it is less clear how signals are converted into complex and sustained patterns of gene expression, and how macrophages are reprogrammed during polarization to alter their responses to subsequent environmental challenges. Emerging evidence, reviewed here, suggests an important role for epigenetic mechanisms in modulating and transmitting signals during macrophage polarization and reprogramming. Deeper understanding of epigenetic regulation of macrophage phenotype will enable development of gene-specific therapeutic approaches to enhance host defense while preserving tissue integrity and preventing chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yurchenco P.D.,The New School
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

Basement membranes are widely distributed extracellular matrices that coat the basal aspect of epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle, fat, and Schwann cells. These extracellular matrices, first expressed in early embryogenesis, are self-assembled on competent cell surfaces through binding interactions among laminins, type IV collagens, nidogens, and proteoglycans. They form stabilizing extensions of the plasma membrane that provide cell adhesion and that act as solid-phase agonists. Basement membranes play a role in tissue and organ morphogenesis and help maintain function in the adult. Mutations adversely affecting expression of the different structural components are associated with developmental arrest at different stages as well as postnatal diseases of muscle, nerve, brain, eye, skin, vasculature, and kidney. Source

Carson J.L.,The New School
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Most clinical practice guidelines recommend restrictive red cell transfusion practices, with the goal of minimising exposure to allogeneic blood. The purpose of this review is to compare clinical outcomes in patients randomised to restrictive versus liberal transfusion thresholds (triggers). To examine the evidence for the effect of transfusion thresholds on the use of allogeneic and/or autologous red cell transfusion, and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes. We identified trials by searching; The Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register (searched 01 Feb 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2011, issue 1 (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid) 1948 to January Week 3 2011, EMBASE (Ovid) 1980 to 2011 (Week 04), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to Feb 2011), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (1990 to Feb 2011). We checked reference lists of other published reviews and relevant papers to identify any additional trials. Controlled trials in which patients were randomised to an intervention group or to a control group. Trials were included where intervention groups were assigned on the basis of a clear transfusion 'trigger', described as a haemoglobin (Hb) or haematocrit (Hct) level below which a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was to be administered. Risk ratios of requiring allogeneic blood transfusion, transfused blood volumes and other clinical outcomes were pooled across trials, using a random effects model. Data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias was performed by two people. Nineteen trials involving a total of 6264 patients were identified, and were similar enough that the results could be combined. Restrictive transfusion strategies reduced the risk of receiving a RBC transfusion by 39% (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.72). This equates to an average absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 34% (95% CI 24% to 45%). The volume of RBCs transfused was reduced on average by 1.19 units (95% CI 0.53 to 1.85 units). However, heterogeneity between trials was statistically significant (P<0.00001; I(2)≥93%) for these outcomes. Restrictive transfusion strategies did not appear to impact the rate of adverse events compared to liberal transfusion strategies (i.e. mortality, cardiac events, myocardial infarction, stroke, pneumonia and thromboembolism). Restrictive transfusion strategies were associated with a statistically significant reduction in hospital mortality (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95) but not 30 day mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.03). The use of restrictive transfusion strategies did not reduce functional recovery, hospital or intensive care length of stay. The majority of patients randomised were included in good quality trials, but some items of methodological quality were unclear. There are no trials in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The existing evidence supports the use of restrictive transfusion triggers in most patients including those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. As there are no trials, the effects of restrictive transfusion triggers in high risk groups such as acute coronary syndrome need to be tested in further large clinical trials. In countries with inadequate screening of donor blood, the data may constitute a stronger basis for avoiding transfusion with allogeneic red cells. Source

Tian B.,The New School | Manley J.L.,Columbia University
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2013

Cleavage and polyadenylation (C/P) of nascent transcripts is essential for maturation of the 3' ends of most eukaryotic mRNAs. Over the past three decades, biochemical studies have elucidated the machinery responsible for the seemingly simple C/P reaction. Recent genomic analyses have indicated that most eukaryotic genes have multiple cleavage and polyadenylation sites (pAs), leading to transcript isoforms with different coding potentials and/or variable 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). As such, alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an important layer of gene regulation impacting mRNA metabolism. Here, we review our current understanding of APA and recent progress in this field. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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