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New York City, NY, United States

The New School is a university in New York City, United States, located mostly in Greenwich Village. From its founding in 1919 by progressive New York educators, and for most of its history, the university was known as the The New School for Social Research. Between 1997 and 2005 it was known as New School University. The university and each of its colleges were renamed in 2005.The university is renowned for its teaching and its open intellectual environment. It has also launched or housed a range of important institutions such as the international think tank World Policy Institute, the Vera List Center for Art and Politics, the India China Institute, the Observatory on Latin America, and the Center for New York City Affairs. It also hosts the prestigious annual National Book Awards. Parsons The New School for Design is the university's highly competitive art school.Some 9,300 students are enrolled in graduate and undergraduate degree programs, organized into seven different schools, which teach a variety of disciplines, including the social science, liberal arts, humanities, architecture, fine arts, design, music, drama, finance, psychology and public policy.The graduate school of The New School began in 1933 as the University in Exile, an emergency rescue program for threatened scholars in Europe. In 1934 it was chartered by the New York state board of regents and its name was changed to the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, a name it would keep until 2005 when it was renamed New School for Social Research. Wikipedia.


Ivashkiv L.B.,The New School
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2013

Macrophage polarization refers to development of a specific phenotype important for tissue homeostasis or host defense in response to environmental cues. Environmental factors that induce macrophage polarization include cytokines and microbial factors produced by pathogens or commensal microbiota. Signaling pathways utilized by these polarizing factors have been well characterized, but it is less clear how signals are converted into complex and sustained patterns of gene expression, and how macrophages are reprogrammed during polarization to alter their responses to subsequent environmental challenges. Emerging evidence, reviewed here, suggests an important role for epigenetic mechanisms in modulating and transmitting signals during macrophage polarization and reprogramming. Deeper understanding of epigenetic regulation of macrophage phenotype will enable development of gene-specific therapeutic approaches to enhance host defense while preserving tissue integrity and preventing chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yurchenco P.D.,The New School
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

Basement membranes are widely distributed extracellular matrices that coat the basal aspect of epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle, fat, and Schwann cells. These extracellular matrices, first expressed in early embryogenesis, are self-assembled on competent cell surfaces through binding interactions among laminins, type IV collagens, nidogens, and proteoglycans. They form stabilizing extensions of the plasma membrane that provide cell adhesion and that act as solid-phase agonists. Basement membranes play a role in tissue and organ morphogenesis and help maintain function in the adult. Mutations adversely affecting expression of the different structural components are associated with developmental arrest at different stages as well as postnatal diseases of muscle, nerve, brain, eye, skin, vasculature, and kidney. Source


Kahan D.M.,The New School
Science | Year: 2013

Neglecting the science of science communication puts the value of decision-relevant science at risk. Source


White C.J.,The New School
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has achieved clinical equipoise with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), as evidenced by 2 large U.S. randomized clinical trials, multiple pivotal registry trials, and 2 multispecialty guideline documents endorsed by 14 professional societies. The largest randomized trial conducted in patients at average surgical risk of CEA, CREST (Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial) found no difference between CAS and CEA for the combined endpoint of stroke, death, and myocardial infarction (MI) after 4 years of follow-up. The largest randomized trial comparing CAS and CEA in patients at increased surgical risk, SAPPHIRE (Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy), looked at 1-year stroke, death, and MI incidence and found no difference in symptomatic patients, but a significantly better outcome in asymptomatic patients for CAS (9.9% vs. 21.5%; p = 0.02). Given that >70% of carotid revascularization procedures are performed in asymptomatic patients for primary prevention of stroke, it is incumbent upon clinicians to demonstrate that revascularization has an incremental benefit over highly effective modern medical therapy alone. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


In this protocol we describe a method to obtain telomere length parameters using Southern blots of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs). We use this approach primarily for epidemiological studies that examine leukocyte telomere length. However, the method can be adapted for telomere length measurements in other cells whose telomere lengths are within its detection boundaries. After extraction, DNA is inspected for integrity, digested, resolved by gel electrophoresis, transferred to a membrane, hybridized with labeled probes and exposed to X-ray film using chemiluminescence. Although precise and highly accurate, the method requires a considerable amount of DNA (3 μg per sample) and it measures both the canonical and noncanonical components of telomeres. The method also provides parameters of telomere length distribution in each DNA sample, which are useful in answering questions beyond those focusing on the mean length of telomeres in a given sample. A skilled technician can measure TRF length in ∼130 samples per week. Source

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