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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Butler C.,University of Oxford | van Erp W.,Nijmegen Medical Center | Bhaduri A.,Highgate Mental Health Center | Hammers A.,The Neurodis Foundation Fondation Neurodis | And 4 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2013

Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a recently described epilepsy syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of isolated memory loss. It is associated with two unusual forms of interictal memory impairment: accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and autobiographical amnesia. We investigated the neural basis of TEA using manual volumetry and automated multi-atlas-based segmentation of whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 40 patients with TEA and 20 healthy controls. Both methods confirmed the presence of subtle, bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Additional atrophy was revealed in perirhinal and orbitofrontal cortices. The volumes of these regions correlated with anterograde memory performance. No structural correlates were found for ALF or autobiographical amnesia. The results support the hypothesis that TEA is a focal medial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome but reveal additional pathology in connected brain regions. The unusual interictal memory deficits of TEA remain unexplained by structural pathology and may reflect physiological disruption of memory networks by subclinical epileptiform activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Klein-Koerkamp Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Heckemann R.A.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Heckemann R.A.,Imperial College London | Ramdeen K.T.,The Neurodis Foundation Fondation Neurodis | And 10 more authors.
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2014

Current research suggests that amygdalar volumes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be a relevant measure for its early diagnosis. However, findings are still inconclusive and controversial, partly because studies did not focus on the earliest stage of the disease. In this study, we measured amygdalar atrophy in 48 AD patients and 82 healthy controls (HC) by using a multi-atlas procedure, MAPER. Both hippocampal and amygdalar volumes, normalized by intracranial volume, were significantly reduced in AD compared with HC. The volume loss in the two structures was of similar magnitude (~24%). Amygdalar volume loss in AD predicted memory impairment after we controlled for age, gender, education, and, more important, hippocampal volume, indicating that memory decline correlates with amygdalar atrophy over and above hippocampal atrophy. Amygdalar volume may thus be as useful as hippocampal volume for the diagnosis of early AD. In addition, it could be an independent marker of cognitive decline. The role of the amygdala in AD should be reconsidered to guide further research and clinical practice. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

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