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Endeman D.,The Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience | Fahrenfort I.,The Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience | Fahrenfort I.,Baylor College of Medicine | Sjoerdsma T.,The Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

In neuronal systems, excitation and inhibition must be well balanced to ensure reliable information transfer. The cone/horizontal cell (HC) interaction in the retina is an example of this. Because natural scenes encompass an enormous intensity range both in temporal and spatial domains, the balance between excitation and inhibition in the outer retina needs to be adaptable. How this is achieved is unknown. Using electrophysiological techniques in the isolated retina of the goldfish, it was found that opening Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels in recorded cones reduced the size of feedback responses measured in both cones and HCs. Furthermore, we show that cones express Cl- channels that are gated by GABA released from HCs. Similar to activation of ICl(Ca), opening of these GABA-gated Cl- channels reduced the size of light-induced feedback responses both in cones and HCs. Conversely, application of picrotoxin, a blocker of GABAA and GABAC receptors, had the opposite effect. In addition, reducing GABA release from HCs by blocking GABA transporters also led to an increase in the size of feedback. Because the independent manipulation of Ca2+-dependent Cl- currents in individual cones yielded results comparable to bath-applied GABA, it was concluded that activation of either Cl- current by itself is sufficient to reduce the size of HC feedback. However, additional effects of GABA on outer retinal processing cannot be excluded. These results can be accounted for by an ephaptic feedback model in which a cone Cl- current shunts the current flow in the synaptic cleft. The Ca2+-dependent Cl- current might be essential to set the initial balance between the feedforward and the feedback signals active in the cone HC synapse. It prevents that strong feedback from HCs to cones flood the cone with Ca2+. Modulation of the feedback strength by GABA might play a role during light/dark adaptation, adjusting the amount of negative feedback to the signal to noise ratio of the cone output. © 2012 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society.


Littink K.W.,The Rotterdam Eye Hospital | Littink K.W.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Koenekoop R.K.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Koenekoop R.K.,McGill University | And 19 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2010

PURPOSE. To determine the genetic defect and to describe the clinical characteristics in a cohort of mainly nonconsanguineous cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) patients. METHODS. One hundred thirty-nine patients with diagnosed CRD were recruited. Ninety of them were screened for known mutations in ABCA4, and those carrying one or two mutations were excluded from further research. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping was performed in the remaining 108. Known genes associated with autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies located within a homozygous region were screened for mutations. Patients in whom a mutation was detected underwent further ophthalmic examination. RESULTS. Homozygous sequence variants were identified in eight CRD families, six of which were nonconsanguineous. The variants were detected in the following six genes: ABCA4, CABP4, CERKL, EYS, KCNV2, and PROM1. Patients carrying mutations in ABCA4, CERKL, and PROM1 had typical CRD symptoms, but a variety of retinal appearances on funduscopy, optical coherence tomography, and autofluorescence imaging. CONCLUSIONS. Homozygosity mapping led to the identification of new mutations in consanguineous and nonconsanguineous patients with retinal dystrophy. Detailed clinical characterization revealed a variety of retinal appearances, ranging from nearly normal to extensive retinal remodeling, retinal thinning, and debris accumulation. Although CRD was initially diagnosed in all patients, the molecular findings led to a reappraisal of the diagnosis in patients carrying mutations in EYS, CABP4, and KCNV2. © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.


Sim X.,University of Michigan | Jensen R.A.,University of Washington | Ikram M.K.,Singapore Eye Research Institute | Ikram M.K.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 70 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene) was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10-8. This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10-12 in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts). In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.


PubMed | Queen's University of Belfast, University Miguel Hernández, University of Verona, University of Bergen and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

To study associations between early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and neovascular AMD (nvAMD) with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and genetic variants in vitamin D pathway genes.Population-based, cross-sectional study in a random sample aged 65 years or older from 7 European countries.Of 4753 participants, 4496 (2028 men and 2468 women), with a mean age of 73 years, provided a blood sample; 2137 had no signs of AMD, 2209 had early AMD, and 150 had late AMD, of whom 104 had nvAMD.Participants were interviewed to determine smoking and alcohol use, sunlight exposure, and diet; underwent fundus photography. Fundus images were graded using the International Classification System for Age-Related Maculopathy. The 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and categorized as deficient (<30 nmol/l), insufficient (30-50 nmol/l), or adequate (50 nmol/l). Genotyping was performed on a subsample of 1284 AMD cases and controls for 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)from 7 genes. Associations were investigated by linear or logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.Adjusted odds ratio (OR) for 3 outcomes (early AMD, late AMD, nvAMD).No linear association was found with 25(OH)D and early or late AMD or nvAMD. There was no association between insufficient or deficient status with early or late AMD. Deficient status was associated with nvAMD (adjusted OR, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.45; P < 0.0001). Significant (P < 0.05) associations with 25(OH)D were found for SNPs in genes GC, VDR, CYP2R1, and CYP27B1. Two SNPs (VDR) were associated with early AMD, 4 SNPs (RXRA) and 1 SNP (VDR) were associated with nvAMD, and 1 SNP (RXRA), 2 SNPs (VDR), and 1 SNP (CYP2R1) were associated with late AMD. After Bonferroni correction, no SNPs were associated with early AMD, late AMD, or nvAMD.Deficiency in 25(OH)D was associated with nvAMD, but the adjusted OR was small, and we cannot exclude residual confounding. The hypothesis of a causal association of vitamin D with AMD is not supported by clear evidence for an association of vitamin D SNPs with early AMD, late AMD, or nvAMD.


van Oosterhout W.P.J.,Leiden University | van Someren E.J.W.,The Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience | van Someren E.J.W.,VU University Amsterdam | Louter M.A.,Leiden University | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2016

Background and purpose: Our aim was to study not only the prevalence but more importantly the severity and the correlation between sleep quality and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a large population of well-defined migraine patients as poor sleep presumably triggers migraine attacks. Methods: In a large cross-sectional and observational study, data on migraine and RLS were collected from 2385 migraine patients (according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-IIIb) and 332 non-headache controls. RLS severity (International RLS Study Group severity scale) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed. Risk factors for RLS and RLS severity were calculated using multivariable-adjusted regression models. Results: Restless legs syndrome prevalence in migraine was higher than in controls (16.9% vs. 8.7%; multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.86; P = 0.008) and more severe (adjusted severity score 14.5 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1; P = 0.036). Poor sleepers were overrepresented amongst migraineurs (50.1% vs. 25.6%; P < 0.001). Poorer sleep quality was independently associated with RLS occurrence (odds ratio 1.08; P < 0.001) and RLS severity (P < 0.001) in migraine patients. Conclusion: Restless legs syndrome is not only twice as prevalent but also more severe in migraine patients, and associated with decreased sleep quality. © 2016 European Academy of Neurology.


PubMed | Leiden University, The Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience and Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of neurology | Year: 2016

Our aim was to study not only the prevalence but more importantly the severity and the correlation between sleep quality and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a large population of well-defined migraine patients as poor sleep presumably triggers migraine attacks.In a large cross-sectional and observational study, data on migraine and RLS were collected from 2385 migraine patients (according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-IIIb) and 332 non-headache controls. RLS severity (International RLS Study Group severity scale) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed. Risk factors for RLS and RLS severity were calculated using multivariable-adjusted regression models.Restless legs syndrome prevalence in migraine was higher than in controls (16.9% vs. 8.7%; multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.86; P = 0.008) and more severe (adjusted severity score 14.5 0.5 vs. 12.0 1.1; P = 0.036). Poor sleepers were overrepresented amongst migraineurs (50.1% vs. 25.6%; P < 0.001). Poorer sleep quality was independently associated with RLS occurrence (odds ratio 1.08; P < 0.001) and RLS severity (P < 0.001) in migraine patients.Restless legs syndrome is not only twice as prevalent but also more severe in migraine patients, and associated with decreased sleep quality.

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