The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL

The Hague, Netherlands

The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL

The Hague, Netherlands
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Kerkhof A.,University of Groningen | Drissen E.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | Uiterkamp A.S.,University of Groningen | Moll H.,University of Groningen
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

To manage environmental problems in an adequate way, it is essential to take different spatial scales into consideration. As a tool for decision making, it would be beneficial if valuation methods take spatial scales into account as well. In this article, we review the valuation literature with regard to the spatial scales of environmental public goods and services to which the contingent valuation method, hedonic pricing method, and travel cost method have been applied in the past. We classified 117 environmental case studies to the local, landscape/ watershed, regional, and global scales. These case studies cover a broad range of environmental goods and services, such as green space in a city, air quality, rivers, natural areas, and a stable climate system. Additionally, we took into account the year of publication of the case studies. Our results show that the majority of the environmental case studies are related to the local and landscape/watershed scales. However, the number of case studies on the regional and global scales has been increasing in recent years. This article argues that such a change in spatial scale calls for a debate on scaling issues in the field of environmental valuation. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Denby B.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Cassiani M.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | de Smet P.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | de Leeuw F.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | Horalek J.,The Czech Hydro Meteorological Institute CHMI
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Estimates of population exposure to air pollution on the European scale are required for policy development and health impact assessment. Long term exposure estimates of this type can be made using spatially distributed air quality and population density data. Gridded chemical transport models (CTMs) are often used for this purpose, however the grid resolution of CTMs that cover entire continents is usually limited to 25-100 km and there may be a significant level of unresolved variability within the grids that will impact on the exposure estimates. In this paper sub-grid variability and its impact on long term exposure estimates is assessed by investigating the covariance of concentration and population, which is shown to be the defining term in estimating the average sub-grid population exposure. A parameterisation of the sub-grid covariance is described, based on the sub-grid covariance of other proxy data, and this is applied using EMEP model results for all of Europe. The study shows that the error made in the exposure calculations for all of Europe is significant for the typical CTM resolution of 50 km. The error is largest for NO2, where the average European urban background exposure using CTMs is underestimated by 44 ± 4%. Particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) is also underestimated, but only by 15 ± 4%. Calculation of the sub-grid covariance for the ozone health indicator SOMO35 (Sum of Ozone 8 h running Means Over 35 ppb) was not carried out for all of Europe as the sub-grid parameterisation was considered too uncertain for useful application. However, estimates based on observations alone show that population weighted SOMO35 concentrations are overestimated by around 13% when using model grid resolutions of 50 km. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Denby B.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Sundvor I.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Cassiani M.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | de Smet P.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

This article investigates the spatial mapping of temporal trends in air quality for all of Europe. Such spatially distributed maps provide information for policy making and for understanding the spatial character of air quality trends. Previous trend studies have concentrated on individual, or groups of, monitoring sites looking at the trends of these. In this study use is made of statistical interpolation methods that combine observed and modelled data in an optimised way. Log-normal residual kriging with multiple linear regression is used to produce annual maps of air quality indicators for ozone (AOT40; Accumulated Dose of Ozone Over a Threshold of 40ppb) and SO2 (annual mean) for the period 1996-2005. Trends in these maps are then calculated and their significance and uncertainty are assessed. The methodology is effectively used for mapping SO2 trends to a significant level in most of Europe. However, trends in AOT40 are less clearly defined since the uncertainty is generally of the same order as, or greater than, the calculated trends. A general north to south gradient in AOT40 trends can be seen, with downward trends in the UK and Scandinavia but upward trends in the Mediterranean region. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dassen T.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | Kunseler E.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | van Kessenich L.M.,The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL
Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

The Sustainable City study of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) uses an analytical-deliberative approach to generate integrated options for strategic, long-term urban development policies in the Netherlands. Scenarios for the sustainable city were designed using visions and roadmaps that were actively developed by actors involved in urban development and planning. The subsequent scenario analysis on potential, coherence and distributional effects across socio-economic groups was combined with the narratives from the stakeholder dialogues to develop model-based narratives. These model-based narratives indicate the necessity of extensive national and international policy choices in the fields of energy, transport and spatial planning for the ecological sustainability of cities. The local level emerges as crucial when it comes to social sustainability. A transition that would benefit sustainability on all dimensions may be reached when citizens and civic and private organizations start to value (more) aspects of urban design and development that contribute to and create a sustainable quality of life. Thus far, little attention has been paid to policy-relevant knowledge on the urgency and complexity of triggering any such transitions. Based on the lessons learnt from this study, it can be concluded that, in the follow-up to this study, issues crucial to urban sustainable development have to be made more specific and concrete and more attention is needed for technological, institutional and societal feasibility. Interaction with policy makers and other stakeholders is again crucial. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

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