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Kamala A.,Ghent University | Kamala A.,University of Dar es Salaam | Ortiz J.,Ghent University | Ortiz J.,University of Cuenca | And 5 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

In this study, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in maize kernels collected from 300 households' stores in three agro-ecological zones in Tanzania was evaluated by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with a QuEChERS-based procedure as sample treatment. This method was validated for the analysis of the main eleven mycotoxins of health concern that can occur in maize: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZEN). From each zone one major maize producing district for home consumption was chosen and 20 villages for each district were randomly selected for sampling. All mycotoxins of health concern, except for T-2 toxin, were detected in the maize samples. Particularly high levels of AFB1 (50%; 3-1,081μgkg-1), FB1 (73%; 16-18,184μgkg-1), FB2 (48%; 178-38,217μgkg-1) and DON (63%; 68-2,196μgkg-1) were observed. Some samples exceeded the maximum limits set in Tanzania for aflatoxins or in European regulations for other mycotoxins in unprocessed maize. Eighty seven percent of samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, with 45% of samples co-contaminated by carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxins and fumonisins. Significant differences in contamination pattern were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. The high incidence and at high levels (for some) of these mycotoxins in maize may have serious implications on the health of the consumers since maize constitute the staple food of most Tanzanian population. Effective strategies targeting more than one mycotoxin are encouraged to reduce contamination of maize with mycotoxins. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Shirima C.P.,University of Leeds | Shirima C.P.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kimanya M.E.,Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority TFDA | Kimanya M.E.,The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology NM AIST | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2015

Background: Aflatoxin and fumonisin are toxic food contaminants. Knowledge about effects of their exposure and coexposure on child growth is inadequate. oBjective: We investigated the association between child growth and aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Tanzania. Methods: A total of 166 children were recruited at 6–14 months of age and studied at recruitment, and at the 6th and 12th month following recruitment. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed for plasma aflatoxin–albumin adducts (AF-alb) using ELISA, and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, respectively. Anthropometric measure-ments were taken, and growth index z-scores were computed. results: AF-alb geometric mean concentrations (95% CIs) were 4.7 (3.9, 5.6), 12.9 (9.9, 16.7), and 23.5 (19.9, 27.7) pg/mg albumin at recruitment, 6 months, and 12 months from recruitment, respectively. At these respective sampling times, geometric mean UFB1 concentrations (95% CI) were 313.9 (257.4, 382.9), 167.3 (135.4, 206.7), and 569.5 (464.5, 698.2) pg/mL urine, and the prevalence of stunted children was 44%, 55%, and 56%, respectively. UFB1 concentrations at recruitment were negatively associated with length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) at 6 months (p = 0.016) and at 12 months from recruitment (p = 0.014). The mean UFB1 of the three sampling times (at recruitment and at 6 and 12 months from recruitment) in each child was negatively associated with LAZ (p < 0.001) and length velocity (p = 0.004) at 12 months from recruitment. The negative association between AF-alb and child growth did not reach statistical significance. conclusions: Exposure to fumonisin alone or coexposure with aflatoxins may contribute to child growth impairment. © 2015, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved. Source

Kamala A.,Ghent University | Kimanya M.,The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology NM AIST | Haesaert G.,Ghent University | Tiisekwa B.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

A survey was undertaken of a total of 120 farmers, 40 from each of the three studied agro-ecological zones of Tanzania, to determine local post-harvest management practices associated with aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FB) contamination of maize. Data on practices (collected using a structured questionnaire) and maize samples were obtained from each of the 120 farmers. FB and AF contamination in the samples were analysed by HPLC. A total of 45% and 85% of maize samples were positive for AF and FB respectively, with levels ranging from 0.1 to 269 μg kg−1 for AF and from 49 to 18 273 μg kg−1 for FBs. Significant differences in contamination level were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. Farmers in the three agro-ecological zones practised similar practices in varying degrees. Drying, sorting and protecting maize against insect infestation are practices that showed significant association with AF or FB contamination of maize. Drying maize on mat/raised platform, sorting (damaged, discoloured and moulded grains) and application of synthetic insecticides during storage are practices that were associated with less contamination of maize with AF and FB. The results can be used to advise on effective post-harvest strategies for prevention of AF and FB contamination of maize in rural Tanzania. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source

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