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Zhang J.,National University of Singapore | Liang J.,National University of Singapore | Hu J.,National University of Singapore | Xie R.,The National Water Agency | And 5 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

Abstract: Seawater, converted by reverse osmosis (RO) membrane into desalinated water when introduced to drinking water distribution systems and mixed with tap water of natural source, may affect the stability of existing biofilms attached to the pipeline. A continuous flow system consisting of four identical, parallel 1 L CDC biofilm reactors was installed. The reactors were operated with dechlorinated tap water for 55 days. Thereafter, water made of 100% tap water, 100% RO desalinated seawater, and 70/30 and 30/70 mixed tap water/desalinated seawater were continuously applied. Analyses of the bulk water heterotrophic plate count (HPC), biofilm HPC, total carbohydrate content (TCC), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was carried out. No obvious changes in HPC and TCC were observed in bulk water. But, continuous feed with 100% desalinated water resulted in higher bacterial count than the other treatments. The DGGE data showed that higher portion of the RO desalinated seawater resulted in less biodiversity. © 2013, © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Lee H.,The National Water Agency | Tan T.P.,The National Water Agency
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2016

NEWater, Singapore’s reclaimed water, has enabled Singapore to sustainably meet its growing water demand despite limited land for water catchment and storage. While technology provided this water reuse solution, strong political will, good governance and effective public engagement were key to Singapore’s success in supplying NEWater for indirect potable use and direct nonpotable use. A multiple-barrier process including dual-membrane filtration and UV disinfection, complemented by a strict operating philosophy and comprehensive water quality management programme, ensures reliable delivery of good-quality NEWater even as the supply capacity expands. © 2016 PUB, Singapore Source

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