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Nidzworski D.,Medical University of Gdansk | Wasilewska E.,Medical University of Gdansk | Smietanka K.,The National Veterinary Research Institute | Szewczyk B.,Medical University of Gdansk | Minta Z.,The National Veterinary Research Institute
Acta Biochimica Polonica | Year: 2013

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family and avian influenza virus (AIV), member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, are two main avian pathogens causing serious economic problems in poultry health. Both are enveloped, single-stranded, negativesense RNA viruses and cause similar symptoms, ranging from sub-clinical infections to severe diseases, including decrease in egg production, acute respiratory syndrome, and high mortality. Similar symptoms hinder the differentiation of infection with the two viruses by standard veterinary procedures like clinical examination or necropsy. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of these two viruses. Eighteen NDV strains, fourteen AIV strains, and twelve other (negative control) strains viruses were isolated from allantoic fluids of specific pathogen-free (SPF), embryonated eggs. Four-weeks-old SPF chickens were co-infected with both viruses (NDV - LaSota and AIV - H7N1). Swabs from cloaca and trachea were collected and examined. The results obtained in this study show that by using duplex real-time PCR, it was possible to detect and distinguish both viruses within less than three hours and with high sensitivity, even in case a bird was co-infected. Additionally, the results show the applicability of the real-time PCR assay in laboratory practice for the identification and differentiation of Newcastle disease and influenza A viruses in birds. Source

Durkalec M.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Durkalec M.,The National Veterinary Research Institute | Szkoda J.,The National Veterinary Research Institute | Kolacz R.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2015

We used wild boars and roe deer as biomonitors of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contamination in two major industrial sites in Poland with different levels of toxic metal pollution. Masurian Lakes District, located far away from industry, was used as the reference site. Levels of Pb, Cd, and Hg in liver, kidney and muscle samples and in the stomach content of the animals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods. We calculated also the mean concentration factors in the animal tissues versus their concentration in the gastric or rumen content. Our results indicate that area affected by metal smelting was more contaminated than brown coal mining area and the reference site, as indicated by higher levels of Pb and Cd in tissues and stomach contents of the animals. High levels of those metals in the offal of game animals may pose a threat to consumers of venison. © 2015, University of Tehran. All rights reserved. Source

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