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PubMed | University Bretagne Loire, National Veterinary School of Alfort, APHA, Wageningen University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2016

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused extensive economic losses to pig producers in many countries. It was recently introduced, for the first time, into North America and outbreaks have occurred again in multiple countries within Europe as well. To assess the properties of various diagnostic assays for the detection of PEDV infection, multiple panels of porcine sera have been shared and tested for the presence of antibodies against PEDV in an inter-laboratory ring trial. Different laboratories have used a variety of in house ELISAs and also one commercial assay. The sensitivity and specificity of each assay has been estimated using a Bayesian analysis applied to the ring trial results obtained with the different assays in the absence of a gold standard. Although different characteristics were found, it can be concluded that each of the assays used can detect infection of pigs at a herd level by either the early European strains of PEDV or the recently circulating strains (INDEL and non-INDEL). However, not all the assays seem suitable for demonstrating freedom from disease in a country. The results from individual animals, especially when the infection has occurred within an experimental situation, show more variation.


PubMed | Laboratoire Vebiotel, University Utrecht, University of Liverpool, University of Bologna and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC veterinary research | Year: 2016

There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of antimicrobial resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in companion animals in Europe. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 22 256 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI was determined. Samples were collected between 2008 and 2013 from 16 laboratories of 14 European countries. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of the most common bacteria was determined for each country individually in the years 2012-2013 and temporal trends of bacteria resistance were established by logistic regression.The aetiology of uropathogenic bacteria differed between dogs and cats. For all bacterial species, Southern countries generally presented higher levels of antimicrobial resistance compared to Northern countries. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli were found to be more prevalent in Southern countries. During the study period, the level of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolated in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands decreased significantly. A temporal increase in resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin was observed among E. coli isolates from the Netherlands and Switzerland, respectively. Other country-specific temporal increases were observed for fluoroquinolone-resistant Proteus spp. isolated from companion animals from Belgium.This work brings new insights into the current status of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animals with UTI in Europe and reinforces the need for strategies aiming to reduce resistance.


Lindstedt B.A.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Torpdahl M.,Statens Serum Institute | Vergnaud G.,University Paris - Sud | Vergnaud G.,Directorate General of Armaments | And 11 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

Genotyping of important medical or veterinary prokaryotes has become a very important tool during the last decades. Rapid development of fragment-separation and sequencing technologies has made many new genotyping strategies possible. Among these new methods is multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Here we present an update on the use of MLVA in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden). Researchers in Europe have been active in developing and implementing a large array of different assays. MLVA has been used as a typing tool in several contexts, from aiding in resolving outbreaks of food-borne bacteria to typing organisms that may pose a bioterrorist threat, as well as in scientific studies.


Metreveli G.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wagberg L.,Uppsala University | Emmoth E.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA | Belak S.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2014

This is the first time a 100% natural, unmodified nanofibrous polymer-based membrane is demonstrated capable of removing viruses solely based on the size-exclusion principle, with a log10 reduction value (LRV) ≥ 6.3 as limited by the assay lower detection limit and the feed virus titre, thereby matching the performance of industrial synthetic polymer virus removal filters. © 2014 The Authors.


Cholleti H.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA | Cholleti H.,Uppsala University | Paidikondala M.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA | Paidikondala M.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) causes a respiratory and reproductive disease in horses, equine viral arteritis. Though cell death in infection with EAV is considered to occur by apoptosis, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been extensively elucidated. We investigated the expression of mRNA of pro-apoptotic and caspase genes during EAV infection in BHK21 cells, a well-established cell type for EAV replication. Using a SYBR Green real-time PCR, mRNA of p53, Bax, caspase 3 and caspase 9 were found up-regulated in a time dependent manner in EAV infected cells. Western blot analysis for caspase 3 and caspase 9 showed expression of cleaved forms of these proteins during EAV infection. In addition, a luminescence-based cell assay for caspase 3/7 activation as a hallmark in apoptosis confirmed apoptotic cell death. The findings demonstrate that cell death in EAV infected BHK21 cells results from apoptosis mediated through the intrinsic signalling pathway. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA, Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Research Center en Sanidad Animal, Coda Research and 2 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Research in veterinary science | Year: 2014

Classical swine fever is one of the most important infectious diseases for the pig industry worldwide due to its economic impact. Vaccination is an effective means to control disease, however within the EU its regular use is banned owing to the inability to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals, the so called DIVA principle. This inability complicates monitoring of disease and stops international trade thereby limiting use of the vaccine in many regions. The C-strain vaccine is safe to use and gives good protection. It is licensed for emergency vaccination in the EU in event of an outbreak. Two genetic assays that can distinguish between wild type virus and C-strain vaccines have recently been developed. Here the results from a comparison of these two real-time RT-PCR assays in an interlaboratory exercise are presented. Both assays showed similar performance.


Granberg F.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Karlsson O.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Belak S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Belak S.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Metagenomic approaches have become invaluable for culture-independent and sequence-independent detection and characterization of disease-associated pathogens. Here, the sequential steps from sampling to verification of results are described for a metagenomic-based approach to detect potential pathogens in honeybees. The pre-sequencing steps are given in detail, but due to the rapid development of sequencing technologies, all platform-specific procedures, as well as subsequent bioinformatics analysis, are more generally described. It should also be noted that this approach could, with minor modifications, be adapted for other organisms and sample matrices. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015.


Widen F.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA | Vagsholm I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Belak S.,The National Veterinary Institute SVA | Belak S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Muradrasoli S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Traditionally the focus for control of food-borne disease has been bacteria. During the last decade viruses have emerged as important sources of food borne human disease. Since the traditional bacteriological indicators, are not reliable for viral contamination, new methods are needed. PCR has enhanced the detection of virus in food. A challenge for developing detection reliable methods for viruses in food is that food matrices vary in composition, high sequence variability and inhibitors may be present. Therefore it is necessary to develop assays that have high diagnostic sensitivity, are broad and robust, and combine sample concentration and removal of inhibitors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | VU University Amsterdam, Lund University, Radboud University Nijmegen and The National Veterinary Institute SVA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting mice, termed DKO mice, were completely devoid of iduronic acid, and the resulting chondroitin sulfate chains were structurally different from the wild type chains, from which a different protein binding specificity can be expected. As a consequence, a vast majority of the DKO mice died perinatally, with greatly variable phenotypes at birth or late embryological stages such as umbilical hernia, exencephaly and a kinked tail. However, a minority of embryos were histologically unaffected, with apparently normal lung and bone/cartilage features. Interestingly, the binding of the chemokine CXCL13, an important modulator of lymphoid organogenesis, to mouse DKO embryonic fibroblasts was impaired. Nevertheless, the development of the secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, was normal. Altogether, our results indicate an important role of dermatan sulfate in embryological development and perinatal survival.


PubMed | The National Veterinary Institute SVA
Type: | Journal: Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2016

Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards. The number of animal species known to be infected with HEV is expanding rapidly. The finding of HEV in new host species always raises the question regarding the zoonotic potential of these newfound strains. However, as new strains are found, the complexity increases.Certain genotypes are known to have the ability of zoonotic spread from certain animal species and these animals may even constitute an infection reservoir. Some animal species may contribute to zoonotic infections albeit on a smaller scale, while others are believed to be of minor or no importance at all. This chapter reviews possible sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus infection.

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