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The National Teachers College

Quiapo, Philippines
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Gardner M.,The National Teachers College | Martin A.,The National Teachers College | Brooks-Gunn J.,The National Teachers College
Journal of Research on Adolescence | Year: 2012

In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence-early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborhoods characterized by high levels of disadvantage, but inversely associated with both sex outcomes in neighborhoods characterized by low levels of disadvantage. Caregiver warmth, on the other hand, was inversely associated with early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners in all neighborhoods, regardless of neighborhood disadvantage. © 2011 Society for Research on Adolescence.

Reid J.L.,The National Teachers College | Kagan S.L.,The National Teachers College | Scott-Little C.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Early Child Development and Care | Year: 2017

Theoretical and empirical research is challenging long-held assumptions about how culture shapes children’s thinking, emotions, and actions. No longer is ‘culture’ thought to be a family-based characteristic that operates upon children’s development in predictable ways. Instead, culture is considered inseparable from the developmental process, in which children use cultural artefacts from multiple contexts to make sense of experience, and modify the cultural artefacts they employ. This dynamic model of individual variation, which defies broad or stable categorizations, poses a significant challenge to policy-makers and practitioners who seek a systematic approach to quality in early childhood education (ECE) programs. The ‘food, fashions, and festivals’ approach to cultural diversity in preschool classrooms is insufficient when learning is understood to be a cultural process that varies across time and place. Findings from a multi-disciplinary review of literature on culture and development are presented and implications for ECE pedagogy, practice, and policy are discussed. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Roth J.L.,The National Teachers College | Malone L.M.,The National Teachers College | Brooks-Gunn J.,The National Teachers College
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2010

Contrary to the findings from previous reviews we found little support for the general notion that greater amounts of participation in afterschool programs was related to academic, behavioral, or socio-emotional outcomes. However, some relationships did emerge depending on how participation was conceptualized and measured, and the methodology used to assess the relationship between participation and outcomes. For example, some benefits occurred when participants with high levels of participation were compared to non-participants, not when they were compared to other program participants. Several suggestions are offered to improve future research on the relationship between aspects of participation and developmental outcomes. © 2010 Society for Community Research and Action.

Zheng W.L.,The National Teachers College | Yang W.,The National Teachers College
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Zn1-XCoxO crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal method with 3mol/L KOH as mineralizer. The fill factor was 35%, reaction temperature, 430°C and reaction time, 24 hours. When the Zn(OH)2 doped with CoCl2 • 6H2O was used as precursor, many different shapes of Zn1-X Cox O crystals were obtained in the hydrothermal synthesis products. The Co concentration in the crystal was determined by electron probe, the atomic percentage of Co in the crystal increased as the concentration o f CoCl2 • 6H2O in precursor increased. The measurement of magnetism was carried out by using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQU ID). It is found that the magnetization varies unobviously as the temperature rises below the room temperature. The hysteresis loop of Zn1-X CoxO crystals was obtained at 300K and shows the ferromagnetism at the room temperature. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Lindsay Chase-Lansdale P.,Northwestern University | Brooks-Gunn J.,The National Teachers College
Future of Children | Year: 2014

Most of the authors in this issue of Future of Children focus on a single strategy for helping both adults and children that could become a component of two-generation programs. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on the other hand, look at actual programs with an explicit two-generation focus that have been tried in the past or are currently under way. These explicitly two-generation programs have sought to build human capital across generations by combining education or job training for adults with early childhood education for their children. Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn explain the theories behind these programs and review the evidence for their efficacy. A first wave of such programs in the 1980s and 1990s produced mostly disappointing results, but the evaluations they left behind pointed to promising new directions. More recently, a second wave of two-generation programs-the authors dub them "Two-Generation 2.0"-has sought to rectify the flaws of earlier efforts, largely by building strong connections between components for children and adults, by ensuring that children and adults receive services of equal duration and intensity, and by incorporating advances in both education and workforce development. These Two-Generation 2.0 programs are still in their infancy, and we have yet to see clear evidence that they can achieve their goals or be implemented cost-effectively at scale. Nonetheless, Chase-Lansdale and Brooks-Gunn write, the theoretical justification for these programs is strong, their early results are promising, and the time is ripe for innovation, experimentation, and further study.

Martin A.,The National Teachers College
Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) | Year: 2010

Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 723) were used to test whether the effects of fathers' supportive parenting on children's school readiness are greater when mothers are least supportive. We distinguished between academic and social dimensions of school readiness. Mothers' and fathers' parenting was assessed in dyadic parent-child videotaped sessions during the preschool period. Results for both academic and social outcomes indicated that fathers' supportiveness had larger benefits for children at lower levels of mothers' supportiveness. In fact, fathers' supportiveness was associated with children's school readiness only when mothers scored average or below on supportiveness. Mothers' supportiveness was similarly associated with children's social school readiness when fathers scored average or below on supportiveness. However, mothers' supportiveness was associated with children's academic school readiness even when fathers scored above average on supportiveness. The results suggest that fathers may influence child development most as potential buffers against unsupportive mother parenting. Further research is needed to replicate these analyses in a less socioeconomically advantaged sample. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

Petitclerc A.,The National Teachers College | Petitclerc A.,University College Dublin | Gatti U.,University of Genoa | Vitaro F.,University of Montréal | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2013

Background: The juvenile justice system's interventions are expected to help reduce recidivism. However, previous studies suggest that official processing in juvenile court fails to reduce adolescents' criminal behavior in the following year. Longer term effects have not yet been investigated with a rigorous method. This study used propensity score matching to assess the impact of juvenile court processing into young adulthood. Method: Participants were part of a prospective longitudinal study of 1,037 boys from low- socioeconomic areas of Montreal, followed from ages 6-25 years. During their adolescence, 176 participants were processed in juvenile court, whereas 225 were arrested, but not sent to court. Propensity score matching was used to balance the group of participants exposed to juvenile court and the unexposed comparison group on 14 preadolescent child, family and peer characteristics. The two groups were compared on their official adult criminal outcomes. Results: The risk of conviction for an adult offence was 50.0% for court-processed participants compared with 24.3% for their matched counterparts, OR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.80-5.44. Court-processed participants committed an average of 0.39 violent crimes, compared with 0.15 for their matched counterparts; Poisson model IRR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.39-4.87. They also committed an average of 2.38 nonviolent crimes, compared to 1.30 for their matched counterparts, IRR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.19-2.93. Conclusions: Rather than decreasing recidivism, juvenile court intervention increased both violent and nonviolent future crimes. Along with previous studies, this study highlights a pressing need for more research and knowledge transfer about effective interventions to reduce recidivism among youths who commit crime. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Chang J.H.,The National Teachers College | Kim Y.-G.,The National Teachers College
Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea) | Year: 2015

The type VI secretion system (T6SS), commonly found in gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for exporting effector proteins. The T6SS has been reported to be cytotoxic to host cells. While the components and assembly of the T6SS complex have been largely assessed, structural data on T6SS components from virulent bacteria is remarkably insufficient. Here, we report the crystal structure of Vibrio cholerae TssL (VcTssL), a core component of T6SS. In spite of a relatively low sequence identity, the overall structure of VcTssL is largely similar to those from other bacterial homologs except for several differences found in local structural elements. A unique feature attributed to the C-terminal fragment of VcTssL is a crystallographic artifact. This incidental feature of VcTssL may provide insights into screening of molecular partners for the cytoplasmic domain of TssL. Additionally, our results may help in the design of molecular probes for a detailed understanding of the functional relationship between TssL and other T6SS components.

Yang L.,The National Teachers College
2010 International Conference on Networking and Digital Society, ICNDS 2010 | Year: 2010

Motion estimation is the process of selecting an offset to a suitable reference area in a previously coded frame. In this paper, the Predictive Motion Vector Field Adaptive Search Technique (PMVFAST) and Enhanced-PMVFAST (EPMVFAST) algorithm was reviewed, and we studied in detail the motion estimation technology in AVS in two parts: soft and hard decision process in motion estimation, soft-decision based local search pattern. ©2010 IEEE.

Xin S.,The National Teachers College
2010 International Conference on Networking and Digital Society, ICNDS 2010 | Year: 2010

In this paper, we briefly introduce the A VS-M, show the SATD function definition and the role of it. And then, we optimize the SATD function in AVS-M in four parts: expand cycle, use macro definition to the absolute value calculation, use the C library function instead of macro definition, merger the final step of Hadamard-Transform. Through optimization, coding speed increased from 1.15 frame/sec to 1.32 frame/sec. ©2010 IEEE.

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