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Li J.-H.,CAS Institute of Botany | Li J.-H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu Z.-J.,The National Orchid Conservation Center | Salazar G.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

A molecular analysis was performed on 56 taxa in the orchid genus Cypripedium using nrDNA ITS and five chloroplast regions (trnH-psbA, atpI-atpH, trnS-trnfM, trnL-F spacer, and the trnL intron). The genus Cypripedium was confirmed as monophyletic. Our data provided strong support for monophyletic grouping of eight infrageneric sections (Subtropica, Obtusipetala, Trigonopedia, Sinopedilum, Bifolia, Flabelinervia, Arietinum, and Cypripedium) defined in earlier taxonomic treatments, and paraphyletic grouping of two sections (Irapeana and Retinervi). Within the genus Cypripedium, the first divergent lineage consisted of two Mesomaerican species, and subsequently the Cypripedium debile lineage from eastern Asia was split. Our study did not support the notion that two Asian species (Cypripedium subtropicum and Cypripedium singchii) were closely related to either Mesoamerican Cypripedium irapeanum or North American Cypripedium californicum, as indicated by previous interpretations based on morphological evidences. In addition, one pair of vicariant species, Cypripedium plectrochilum (eastern Asia) and Cypripedium arietinum (North America), unique to section Arietinum, was confirmed. Furthermore, within the monophyletic section Cypripedium two previously recognized subsections, Cypripedium and Macrantha, were shown to be paraphyletic. Our results suggested that this section split into two groups based on distribution (North America vs. Eurasia) instead of such previously used, morphological traits as flower color, and the shape of the lips (labellum) and lateral petals. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Liu Z.-J.,The National Orchid Conservation Center | Liu Z.-J.,South China Agricultural University | Chen L.-J.,The National Orchid Conservation Center
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2011

Dendrobium hekouense Z.J. Liu & L.J. Chen sp. nova (Orchidaceae) is described from southeast Yunnan of China. It belongs in the section Dendrobium and is more or less akin to D. wangliangii, from which it differs by its dorsal sepal larger than petals, lateral sepals broader than long, cylindrical mentum 1.2-1.3 cm long, and a trilobed lip. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2011. Source


Li P.,Southwest University of Science and Technology | Zheng G.L.,Southwest University of Science and Technology | Dafni A.,Haifa University | Luo Y.B.,CAS Institute of Botany | Luo Y.B.,The National Orchid Conservation Center
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The genus Phaius is distributed mainly in pantropical areas, and most species reported are autogamous. In contrast, Phaius delavayi, an alpine plant endemic to temperate zones of China, is strictly pollinator dependent. Only female workers and males of the bumblebee species B. hypnorum and B. lepidus are effective pollinators. The pollinaria are deposited on top of the head or the prothorax of the pollinators. The different depositions of pollinaria are regarded as an adaptation of the chamber dimensions of the flower to the size of the pollinator. The natural fruit set reported here (24.6-37.1%) suggests that pollination is successful in the deceptive P. delavayi. The yellow perianth and sweet floral scent of P. delavayi are important cues in attracting pollinators, while flowering time and mass population are associated with the process of "learning and avoidance" of the rewardless flowers. This orchid, therefore, employs a deceptive pollination strategy with diverse pollinators and pollinaria depositions rather than autogamy as do its congeners. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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