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Mehrnejad M.R.,Pistachio Research Institute | Vahabzadeh N.,Pistachio Research Institute | Hodgson C.J.,The National Museum of Wales
Biological Control

The suitability of Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer as a prey for Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) was evaluated by studying the predator's development and reproduction on this species in comparison to reference diets of nymphs of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Both larval and adult A. bipunctata fed voraciously on A. pistaciae. The development time of the ladybird was shorter when fed on M. persicae and A. pistaciae and longer on E. kuehniella. The survival rate was 87% on M. persicae and 85% on A. pistaciae, both significantly greater than on E. kuehniella eggs (63%). The ladybirds were heaviest at eclosion and their fecundity was higher on M. persicae than on A. pistaciae or E. kuehniella. Both the aphid and psyllid diets yielded higher R0, rm values and lower T and DT values than E. kuehniella eggs. Based on total development time, immature survival and adult fecundity, the relative suitability for A. bipunctata was M. persicae>A. pistaciae>E. kuehniella. When ladybirds were reared on psyllids, they showed no preference between aphid or psyllid diets, but when raised on M. persicae, they preferred an aphid diet. A field experiment showed that A. bipunctata preferred to oviposit on pistachio trees at a height of 150-200cm, i.e. towards the top. The results indicate that A. pistaciae constitutes a complete food for A. bipunctata, supporting both completed development and successful reproduction. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hodgson C.,The National Museum of Wales | Miller D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture

This paper reviews the present status of all genera of Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) known from South America and provides generic diagnoses based on the adult females of all available species for each genus. Redescriptions and illustrations are provided for the adult females of Aculeococcus morrisoni Lepage, Apiococcus gregarius Hempel, Capulinia sallei Signoret, Carpochloroides viridis Cockerell, Macracanthopyga verganiana Lizer y Trelles, Pseudocapulinia lanosa Hempel and Tectococcus ovatus Hempel, which are all type species of their respective genera. In addition, modified reproductions of original illustrations are provided for the adult females of the following species as representatives or type species of South American genera: Acanthococcus aceris Signoret, Chilechiton lynnae Hodgson &Miller, Chilecoccus browni Miller &González, Coxicoccus foldi Kozár &Konczné Benedicty, Eriobalachowskya valenzualae (Balachowsky), Exallococcus laureliae Miller &González, Hempelicoccus paranaensis (Foldi &Kozár), Icelococcus nothofagi Miller &González, Intecticoccus viridis Kondo, Melzeria horni Green, Orafortis luma Hardy, Oregmopyga neglecta (Cockerell), Poliloculus stipae González, Pseudotectococcus anonae Hempel and Stibococcus cerinus Miller &González. Descriptions and illustrations are also provided of the first-instar nymphs of: Acanthococcus aceris Signoret, Aculeococcus morrisoni, Apiococcus gregarius, A. singularis Hempel (which appears to be sexually dimorphic), Capulinia sallei, Carpochloroides viridis, Chilechiton lynnae, Exallococcus laureliae, Hempelicoccus tucumanensis (González &Granara de Willink), Icelococcus lithrae Miller &González, Melzeria horni, Oregmopyga peruviana Granara de Willink &Diaz, Pseudocapulinia lanosa, Pseudotectococcus anonae and Tectococcus ovatus. In addition, illustrated descriptions of the adult males of Capulinia sallei, Carpochloroides viridis, and Tectococcus ovatus are included. The first-instar nymphs and adult males of the other genera, where they are known, are also diagnosed and discussed. Based on the molecular studies of Cook &Gullan (2004), most species currently included in Eriococcus Targioni Tozzetti known from South America are considered to belong to the genus Acanthococcus Signoret, resulting in the following new combinations: A. clapsae (González) n. comb., A. cuneifoliae (González) n. comb., A. divaricatae (González) n. comb., A. pituilensis (González) n. comb. and A. lahillei (Leonardi) n. comb. In additon, Eriococcus pumuliae González, E. santiaguensis González &Granara de Willink and E. tucumanensis González &Granara de Willink are transferred to Hempelicoccus, as H. pumuliae (González) n. comb., H. santiaguensis (González &Granara de Willink) n. comb. and H. tucumanensis n. comb. (González &Granara deWillink). The status of Opisthoscelis prosopidis Kieffer &Jorgensen, the only species from the Neotropics currently included in Opisthoscelis Schrader, is discussed, and it is concluded that this species is unlikely to belong to this genus but is currently unrecognizable. Keys are provided for the identification of the 24 genera now known from South America based on the morphology of: (i) the adult females; (ii) the first-instar nymphs; and (iii) adult males, as far as these are known. In addition, Appendix 1 lists all Eriococcidae known from South America with their current generic placement, along with a brief summary of their host plants. © 2010 Magnolia Press. Source

Kondo T.,Research Center Palmira | Hodgson C.,The National Museum of Wales
Neotropical Entomology

A new species of Hemilecanium Newstead, Hemilecanium guanabana Kondo & Hodgson n. sp., is described and illustrated based on the adult female, adult male and first instar. The specimens were collected in the municipality of Palmira, state of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, on soursop, Annona muricata (Annonaceae). Updated identification keys are provided for the adult females of all 28 species of the genus Hemilecanium, and for known adult males and first instars. An updated list of the 23 species of soft scales (Coccidae) known from soursop worldwide is included. © 2013 Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. Source

Williams D.J.,Natural History Museum in London | Hodgson C.J.,The National Museum of Wales

It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed. © D.J. Williams, Chris J. Hodgson. Source

Hodgson C.J.,The National Museum of Wales | Hardy N.B.,Cleveland Museum of Natural History
Systematic Entomology

Currently, 49 families of scale insects are recognised, 33 of which are extant. Despite more than a decade of DNA sequence-based phylogenetic studies of scales insects, little is known with confidence about relationships among scale insects families. Multiple lines of evidence support the monophyly of a group of 18 scale insect families informally referred to as the neococcoids. Among neococcoid families, published DNA sequence-based estimates have supported Eriococcidae paraphyly with respect to Beesoniidae, Dactylopiidae, and Stictococcidae. No other neococcoid interfamily relationship has been strongly supported in a published study that includes exemplars of more than ten families. Likewise, no well-supported relationships among the 15 extant scale insect families that are not neococcoids (usually referred to as 'archaeococcoids') have been published. We use a Bayesian approach to estimate the scale insect phylogeny from 162 adult male morphological characters, scored from 269 extant and 29 fossil species representing 43/49 families. The result is the most taxonomically comprehensive, most resolved and best supported estimate of phylogenetic relationships among scale insect families to date. Notable results include strong support for (i) Ortheziidae sister to Matsucoccidae, (ii) a clade comprising all scale insects except for Margarodidae s.s., Ortheziidae and Matsucoccidae, (iii) Coelostomidiidae paraphyletic with respect to Monophlebidae, (iv) Eriococcidae paraphyletic with respect to Stictococcidae and Beesoniidae, and (v) Aclerdidae sister to Coccidae. We recover strong support for a clade comprising Phenacoleachiidae, Pityococcidae, Putoidae, Steingeliidae and the neococcoids, along with a sister relationship between this clade and Coelostomidiidae+Monophlebidae. In addition, we recover strong support for Pityococcidae+Steingeliidae as sister to the neococcoids. Data from fossils were incomplete, and the inclusion of extinct taxa in the data matrix reduced support and phylogenetic structure. Nonetheless, these fossil data will be invaluable in DNA sequence-based and total evidence estimates of phylogenetic divergence times. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

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