The National Museum of Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

The National Museum of Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Larsen P.K.,The National Museum of Denmark
Brick and Block Masonry: Trends, Innovations and Challenges - Proceedings of the 16th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, IBMAC 2016 | Year: 2016

A dielectric probe developed for vertical soil moisture measurement was adapted for horizontal use in solid brick masonry. A calibration test showed that a moderate salt contamination had a large influence on the measurements, so the results were only indicative for the change in water content. The change in water content in the wall of a historic warehouse was monitored over a period of 9 years. The horizontal moisture profiles indicated that the source of water to the wall was rising damp. A chemical damp proof course installed at the base of the wall seemed not to be very effective, as there was only 10% reduction in water content after eight years. Occasional events of wind driven rain to the façade was possibly another major source of moisture to the wall. A new render was applied to reduce the uptake of rain, but this intervention did not have any significant effect. A brick masonry wall, which is regularly exposed to wind driven rain, may never dry out by evaporation to the outside. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Eriksen A.M.,The Royal Danish Academy | Gregory D.J.,The National Museum of Denmark | Botfeldt K.,The Royal Danish Academy
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2014

Since in situ preservation of archaeological material has become more widespread ( European Union, 1992) the need to stop an active attack of Teredo navalis, a wood-boring mollusc, on waterlogged archaeological wood has become more urgent. The aim of current study is to examine the ability of two plastic materials (TERRAM4000 and a plastic membrane) to stop both initial attack by T.navalis and their effects on wood with active woodborer degradation. Blocks of pinewood were submerged in the southern part of the Kattegat in Denmark, where shipworm is known to be prolific. After settling and attack had been confirmed, the blocks were removed and wrapped in either TERRAM4000 (polypropylene and polyethylene) or a proprietary plastic membrane (polyethylene), normally used on fishing piles or piers, as a protection against shipworm in Denmark. An optical oxygen sensor was packed together with each block to measure the amount of available oxygen around the wood. After one week the oxygen level around the test blocks wrapped in the plastic membrane had dropped drastically and lead to the death of all shipworms within the test blocks after one-four weeks. Although no new shipworm attacked the wood wrapped in TERRAM4000, the geotextile did not impede the passage of oxygenated seawater, as living individuals were found in the blocks after 46 weeks of wrapping and submersion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mortensen M.F.,The National Museum of Denmark | Mortensen M.F.,University of Aarhus | Birks H.H.,University of Bergen | Christensen C.,The National Museum of Denmark | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2011

This paper presents the first unambiguous terrestrial palaeoecological record for the late glacial "Bølling warming" in Denmark. Pollen and macrofossil stratigraphies from pre-Bølling to 10,800 cal yr BP are presented from a small kettle hole in Southwest Denmark, during which the lake basin developed from an immature stage after the deglaciation to complete infilling in the early Holocene. Results show that the recently deglaciated landscape bore a discontinuous vegetation of pioneer plants. After the Bølling warming, an open Dryas octopetala- Betula nana community developed with Helianthemum oelandicum. Subarctic species were dominant and local successions were probably delayed by relatively unstable and infertile soils. There is no indication of a climate cooling during the period corresponding to the Older Dryas, but the occurrence of several drought tolerant and steppe species indicates that the period was relatively dry. In the Allerød period the Dryas- B. nana vegetation was initially replaced by an open Salix and grass dominated vegetation and some 400 years later, the first tree birches were documented presumably occupying moist and sheltered soils while drier land remained open. In the Younger Dryas period trees disappeared and the vegetation became open again and dominated by subarctic species. Following climate warming at the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition a shrub community of Empetrum and Juniperus developed. After approximately 200 years it was replaced by birch forest. Overall, the late-glacial vegetation cover had a more open and patchy character than inferred from previous pollen studies as assessment of the vegetation succession based on macrofossil evidence is essential. The inferred general vegetation development corresponds well with results of other studies in the region. Canonical ordinations (RDA) indicate that vegetation changes at the landscape scale during the Lateglacial period were driven by changes in climate, soils and competition for light. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Jessen C.A.,The National Museum of Denmark | Pedersen K.B.,Museum Southeast Denmark | Christensen C.,The National Museum of Denmark | Olsen J.,University of Aarhus | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

The transition from Late Palaeolithic to early Mesolithic cultures is strongly associated with the major environmental and climatic changes occurring with the shift from the Younger Dryas to the Holocene in northern Europe. In this paper, we present an interdisciplinary study combining archaeological and palaeoenvironmental research in an attempt to examine the relationship between environment and culture during this transition. Lundby Mose is a former kettle hole lake in southern Denmark where the earliest Danish human traces of the Holocene were excavated. Two types of bone deposits were found, 1) ritual offerings of worked, marrow-split elk bones and antler and 2) settlement waste with multiple species. These date to the early Holocene and are affiliated to the early Maglemose culture. The modelled 14C ages suggest that the bones were deposited in four phases. A pollen based palaeoenvironmental reconstruction suggests that the ritual offerings were deposited in an environment of limited, underdeveloped forest with unstable soils and areas of open grassland. The settlement waste deposit is associated with a more developed Preboreal forest type. This forest type was not fully established until c. 11,250 cal BP and if substantiated by further evidence, may be one of the reasons why there are no known early Maglemose/Preboreal settlement sites in southern Scandinavia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Breuning-Madsen H.,Copenhagen University | Holst M.K.,University of Aarhus | Henriksen P.S.,The National Museum of Denmark
Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2012

For centuries a well was located on the top of one of the two Viking Age royal mounds in Jelling. This indicates that a perched water table had developed in the mounds. Perched water tables are well known in Bronze Age burial mounds due to the development of iron pans in the central part of the mounds, but it is unclear whether the genesis of the perched water table in the Jelling mounds is similar and due to iron pan formation or due to other soil forming processes. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explain the formation of the perched water table in the mounds and the formation of a well on top of the North Mound. In order to do so, a series of borings into the two Viking Age royal mounds was carried out in 2009 offering insight into the soil composition and hydrology of the two mounds. Two of the boreholes were used for an in situ experiment to test the formation of the perched water tables and the well. The analyses of the borings and the in situ experiment indicate that a perched water table has developed at the bottom of the bioturbation zone in both of the two mounds and that the well was formed in an unrepaired intrusion into the mound as the result of the perched water table feeding the well with water. Despite large-scale excavations, the conditions for forming a well are still present in the mounds. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | Novo Nordisk AS, The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen University and University of Strasbourg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC - AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029.

Petriaggi B.D.,ISCR MBACT | Gregory D.J.,The National Museum of Denmark | Dencker J.,The Viking Ship Museum
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Underwater archaeological excavation represents a traumatic and essentially destructive event in the history of artefacts, especially organic, and its underwater context. Indeed, due to their fragility, organic archaeological materials from underwater sites can be challenging to excavate, support, raise and transport to conservation facilities. This is due to the inherent difficulties of working underwater (limited time and potentially harsh conditions) and in particular the crucial stage of lifting artefacts from the seabed to the surface where mechanical damage can easily occur. Block lifting of fragile archaeological materials is a useful procedure often adopted on land excavations and allows the collection of information which could be irretrievably lost during more rapid excavation. This procedure could be used with success to recover fragile objects on an archaeological underwater excavation thanks to the new materials and techniques tested and adopted in the SASMAP project ( as will be discussed. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

Lemdahl G.,Linnaeus University | Buckland P.I.,Umeå University | Mortensen M.F.,The National Museum of Denmark
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

The Slotseng site represents Paleolithic settlements of the Havelte phase of the Hamburgian culture (c. 15 to 14calkaBP). The Lateglacial sediment stratigraphy of an adjacent kettle hole was studied in a multidisciplinary project, including the analysis of pollen, macroscopic plant remains, vertebrate bones, and insect remains. In this article the results from the insect analysis are presented. Twelve samples were analysed from a monolith, which chronologically spans from ca. 15,500 to 13,600calBP. 108 taxa of Coleoptera and 15 taxa of Trichoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera were recorded. The beetle assemblages indicate an open heath environment with shrub and herb vegetation during this period, with only minor changes during the stadials and interstadials. This is in good agreement with the interpretations based on pollen and plant macrofossil analyses. The presence of dung beetles indicates that reindeer herds grazed in the vicinity of the site. A number of finds of the carrion beetle Thanatophilus dispar suggest that fish may have been a complementary food resource for the hunters at Slotseng. MCR reconstructions indicate arctic/subarctic climate conditions during the periods GS-2a (Pre-Bølling) and GI-1d (Older Dryas) with mean summer temperatures ~9-13°C and mean winter temperatures ~-3 to -20°C. During the interstadials GI-1e (Bølling) and GI-1c (Allerød 1) mean summer temperatures were ~14-16°C, but mean winter temperatures remained similar to those during the colder periods. The reconstructed environments and living conditions for the Paleolithic hunters show striking similarities with contemporaneous conditions reconstructed for Magdalenian/Azilian sites at Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Olstad T.M.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU | Stornes J.M.,The Norwegian Institute For Cultural Heritage Research NIKU | Bartholin T.S.,The National Museum of Denmark
European Journal of Science and Theology | Year: 2015

The paper deals with the use of dendrochronology for dating and linking a small group of late medieval triptychs in Norway. After a short introduction to dendrochronology, the triptychs are described as well as the photographic dendrochronological examination method used in the project. The results of the dendrochronological examination correspond with the dating given to the triptychs by art historians. © 2015, Ecozone, OAIMDD.

Hansen P.W.,The National Museum of Denmark
Scandinavian Economic History Review | Year: 2014

The main focus of this article is the connection between the social hierarchies and charities like almshouses in Danish urban society between 1700 and 1850. The almshouses and a whole range of other charities were exclusively targeted at those of the upper and middle classes who had fallen on hard times and could not be supported by their families. They were offered better material conditions than the poor of the lower classes. Thus, this kind of charity was both based on, and reinforced, a division of society in distinct social layers. At the same time, the exclusion of the lower-class poor shows that almshouses played an important role in shoring up social boundaries as well as social markers. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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