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Augustyniak I.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Knapkiewicz P.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Sarelo K.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Dziuban J.A.,Wroclaw University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2015

The silicon-glass MEMS high dose radiation sensor with the optical read-out, acting above 10. kGy has been presented. The sensor consists of a microchamber filled with small portion of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and thin silicon membrane. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on radiolysis effect of the HDPE which, upon radiation exposure, releases the hydrogen. The hydrogen increases the pressure inside the microchamber causing the deflection of the membrane, which is proportional to the pressure, thus to radiation dose. The sensor has been irradiated with high energy electron beam with dose 5. ÷. 40 kGy. The displacement of the membrane has been detected by optical interferometer. The relative generated pressure inside the sensor chamber has been found very high (up to 180. kPa). It shows that response of a micro-scaled MEMS sensor is much more effective in comparison to macro-scaled solutions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Findlay H.S.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | Gibson G.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Kedra M.,University of Maryland College Park | Kedra M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Polar Research | Year: 2015

The Arctic Ocean is one of the fastest changing oceans, plays an important role in global carbon cycling and yet is a particularly challenging ocean to study. Hence, observations tend to be relatively sparse in both space and time. How the Arctic functions, geophysically, but also ecologically, can have significant consequences for the internal cycling of carbon, and subsequently influence carbon export, atmospheric CO2 uptake and food chain productivity. Here we assess the major carbon pools and associated processes, specifically summarizing the current knowledge of each of these processes in terms of data availability and ranges of rates and values for four geophysical Arctic Ocean domains originally described by Carmack & Wassmann (2006): inflow shelves, which are Pacific-influenced and Atlantic-influenced; interior, river-influenced shelves; and central basins. We attempt to bring together knowledge of the carbon cycle with the ecosystem within each of these different geophysical settings, in order to provide specialist information in a holistic context. We assess the current state of models and how they can be improved and/or used to provide assessments of the current and future functioning when observational data are limited or sparse. In doing so, we highlight potential links in the physical oceanographic regime, primary production and the flow of carbon within the ecosystem that will change in the future. Finally, we are able to highlight priority areas for research, taking a holistic pan-Arctic approach. © 2015 H.S. Findlay et al. Source

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