The National Academy of science

Allahābād, India

The National Academy of science

Allahābād, India
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Mani D.,Sheila Dhar Institute of Soil Science | Kumar C.,The National Academy of science | Patel N.K.,Sheila Dhar Institute of Soil Science
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2015

The ability of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as compared to chelates was investigated by growing Calendula officinalis L for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated alluvial soil. The combinatorial treatment T6 [2.5 g kg−1oilcake manure + 5 mmol kg−1 EDDS] caused maximum cadmium accumulation in root, shoot and flower up to 5.46, 4.74 and 1.37 mg kg−1and lead accumulation up to 16.11, 13.44 and 3.17 mg kg−1, respectively at Naini dump site, Allahabad (S3). The treatment showed maximum remediation efficiency for Cd (RR = 0.676%) and Pb (RR = 0.202%) at Mumfordganj contaminated site (S2). However, the above parameters were also observed at par with the treatment T5 [2.5 g kg−1oilcake manure +2 g kg−1 humic acid]. Applied EDDS altered chlorophyll–a, chlorophyll–b, and carotene contents of plants while application of oilcake manure enhanced their contents in plant by 3.73–8.65%, 5.81–17.65%, and 7.04–17.19%, respectively. The authors conclude that Calendula officinalis L has potential to be safely grown in moderately Cd and Pb-contaminated soils and application of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure boosts the photosynthetic pigments of the plant, leading to enhanced clean-up of the cadmium and lead-contaminated soils. Hence, the hyperaccumulator oilcake manure should be preferred over chelates for sustainable phytoremediation through soil-plant rhizospheric process. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Singh G.,Allahabad University | Chandra R.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture | Kumar C.,The National Academy of science
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Value addition of a beverage was carried out by blending mango juice at three concentrations (5, 10 and 15 %) with skimmed milk and three concentrations (3, 3.5 and 4.0 %) of vegetable oil with 80 % rice bran oil and 20 % Carthamus tinctorius L. oil (Saffola Gold [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]). Sensory evaluation showed significant differences in flavour and taste, consistency and overall acceptability amongst the various treatment combinations. It showed maximum overall acceptability (7.55/9) among all tested combinations. Beverage prepared from 3.5 % vegetable oil and 15 % pulp was observed superior in terms of nutritional quality showing fats (2.9 %), proteins (2.83 %), carbohydrate (12.16 %) and total solids (18.73 %). Total sugar, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased while total solids and pH increased as the storage period of beverage was increased from 0–30 days, however the changes were observed lesser at low temperature than at room temperature. Addition of vegetable oil ≥3.5 % produced minimum total plate count (≤1.8 cfu/mL) and negative test for coliform. The beverage products were found microbiologically safe during one month of storage at low temperature (around 4 °C). The value added filled milk beverage prepared with 80 % rice bran oil, 20 % safflower seed oil and 15 % mango pulp was prescribed for the best use for a week. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Mani D.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,The National Academy of science | Patel N.K.,Allahabad University | Sivakumar D.,HIGH-TECH
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The natural potential of Chrysanthemum indicum L. for the clean-up of lead-contaminated soil was investigated under pot experiment. Maximum applied lead (at 50 mg/kg) caused significant reduction in the plant height (31.71 %), root length (31.15 %) and dry biomass (32.71 and 41.25 % for root and shoot, respectively); however, minimum applied lead (at 10 mg/kg) promoted the growth of plants to some extent, over the respective control pots. Lead concentration in the tissues followed the order as root>shoot>flower. The combinatorial treatment T16 (50 mg/kg Pb, 0.8 g/kg elemental sulphur and 6 g/kg vermicompost) caused maximum concentration of lead in root, shoot and flower up to the extent of 43.58, 22.45 and 9.62 mg/kg, respectively, leading to the maximum bioaccumulation factor (0.38). However, the combinatorial treatment T4 (sulphur and vermicompost) showed maximum translocation factor (0.63) and T12 (20 mg/kg lead, 0.8 g/kg elemental sulphur and 6 g/kg vermicompost) produced maximum remediation ratio (0.153). The combinatorial treatments under lead-contaminated (10–50 mg/kg) soils showed higher remediation efficiency indicating enhanced clean-up of the aforesaid soils through C. indicum L. Applied lead (>20 mg/kg) altered the chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoid contents of the plants. Hence, the authors conclude that a non-edible ornamental plant, C. indicum L., is preferred to be safely grown in moderately lead-contaminated soils along with application of elemental sulphur and vermicompost, which will boost the photosynthetic pigments of the plants, leading to enhanced clean-up of the lead-contaminated soil. © 2013, Islamic Azad University (IAU).


Mani D.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,The National Academy of science
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The ability of heavy metals bioaccumulation to cause toxicity in biological systems-human, animals, microorganisms and plants-is an important issue for environmental health and safety. Recent biotechnological approaches for bioremediation include biomineralization (mineral synthesis by living organisms or biomaterials), biosorption (dead microbial and renewable agricultural biomass), phytostabilization (immobilization in plant roots), hyperaccumulation (exceptional metal concentration in plant shoots), dendroremediation (growing trees in polluted soils), biostimulation (stimulating living microbial population), rhizoremediation (plant and microbe), mycoremediation (stimulating living fungi/mycelial ultrafiltration), cyanoremediation (stimulating algal mass for remediation) and genoremediation (stimulating gene for remediation process). The adequate restoration of the environment requires cooperation, integration and assimilation of such biotechnological advances along with traditional and ethical wisdom to unravel the mystery of nature in the emerging field of bioremediation. This review highlights better understanding of the problems associated with the toxicity of heavy metals to the contaminated ecosystems and their viable, sustainable and eco-friendly bioremediation technologies, especially the mechanisms of phytoremediation of heavy metals along with some case studies in India and abroad. However, the challenges (biosafety assessment and genetic pollution) involved in adopting the new initiatives for cleaning-up the heavy metals-contaminated ecosystems from both ecological and greener point of view must not be ignored. © 2013 Islamic Azad University (IAU).


Rizvi A.F.,The Institute of Applied science | Singh K.P.,Allahabad University | Kumar N.,The National Academy of science
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2015

Based on the length frequency data growth, mortality, and population parameters of Sciaena coitor from the scoop net (mesh size 0.5–2 cm) catches from middle stretch of Ganga at Allahabad were estimated. The length-weight relationship for pooled data was log W = 76.39315 L2.48487. The asymptotic length (L∞) and growth coefficient (K) were estimated to be 198 mm, and 0.868 year−1, respectively. The total, fishing and natural mortality coefficients were estimated as 3.31, 1.55 and 1.76 respectively while the ‘E’ 0.468 year−1. The recruitment was continuous with one peak per year. The Lc50 was obtained at 115 mm. Yield isopleth diagram generated, give optimum yield at E of 0.4 and Lc/L∞ = 0.58. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Mani D.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,The National Academy of science | Kumar Patel N.,Allahabad University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

The integrated potential of oilcake manure (OM), elemental sulphur (S0), Glomus fasciculatum and Pseudomonas putida by growing Helianthus annuus L for phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc contaminated soils was investigated under pot experiment. The integrated treatment (2.5gkg-1 OM, 0.8gkg-1 S0 and co-inoculation with G. fasciculatum and P. putida promoted the dry biomass of the plant. The treatment was feasible for enhanced cadmium accumulation up to 6.56 and 5.25mgkg-1 and zinc accumulation up to 45.46 and 32.56mgkg-1 in root and shoot, respectively, which caused maximum remediation efficiency (0.73 percent and 0.25 percent) and bioaccumulation factor (2.39 and 0.83) for Cd and Zn, respectively showing feasible uptake (in mgkg-1 dry biomass) of Cd (5.55) and Zn (35.51) at the contaminated site. Thus, authors conclude to integrate oilcake manure, S0 and microbial co-inoculation for enhanced clean-up of cadmium and zinc-contaminated soils. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Mani D.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,The National Academy of science | Patel N.K.,Allahabad University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6 g and elemental sulphur 0.5 g kg-1 soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45 mg kg-1 and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9 mg kg-1 in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4 mg kg-1 dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Mani D.,Allahabad University | Sharma B.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,Allahabad University | Kumar C.,The National Academy of Science | Balak S.,Allahabad University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Field experiments were conducted to determine the mobility, distribution and naturally occurring glutathione (GSH)-based phytoaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in the sewage-irrigated alluvial soils, Allahabad, India. Frequent sewage-irrigation (up to 100 mL kg-1 soil) at 5 days' interval indicated enrichment of soil profiles with Cd and Zn more prominently in surface soils and subsurface soils below to the depth of 0.6 m and augmented cadmium and zinc accumulation in shoot tissues of Brassica species up to 10.6 and 31.5 mg kg-1, respectively. Both cadmium and zinc were found significantly correlated with organic matter and cation exchange capacity of the soils indicating their dominant role in the sewage-irrigated soils. Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica napus L. accumulated significant quantity of cadmium and zinc, and higher concentration of GSH in their shoot tissues synergistically boosted translocation as well as accumulation of metals in plants, especially at plant maturity. However, cadmium showed higher translocation than zinc. Such evidence supports the conclusion that elevated natural GSH concentrations of Brassica species during their developed stage of plant growth are involved in metal hyperaccumulation, which ensure their potential for phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc in the sewage-irrigated soils. Thus, the use of the unused part (mostly leaves) of these species as an innovative technology for phytoremediation is suggested. © CEERS, IAU 2012.


PubMed | Allahabad University and The National Academy of science
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2015

The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils.


Jeong H.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology | Kim H.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology | Jang T.,Chonbuk National University | Park S.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology | Park S.,The National Academy of science
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

In the case of indirect wastewater reuse, which accounts for most of the wastewater reuse for agriculture, the influence of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on irrigation water should be assessed prior to analyzing the effects of indirect wastewater reuse on soil-plant systems and agricultural environments. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of indirect wastewater reuse on irrigation water for paddy fields using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in a wastewater reused watershed in Korea. The model was calibrated and validated using four years (2010-2013) of hydrological and water quality data from the same watershed before the assessment. The model exhibited good performance for predicting daily streamflow, suspended solids (SS) and total nitrogen (T-N) loads from the calibration and validation procedures using statistical and graphical model evaluation. The verified model and historical weather data from 1981 to 2010 (30 years) were used to assess the effects of considering the effluent discharge from a WWTP. Effluent discharge was assessed as an important alternative for emergency agricultural water, as it largely contributes to available irrigation water for paddy fields during the drought season. Effluent discharge was also evaluated as a significant impact on irrigation water quality because the exceedance probability for a tolerable concentration and a water quality standard for T-N concentration increased more than 60 and 40%, respectively, due to its influence. The amount of wastewater reuse for indirect reuse was found to account for 27% of the total agricultural water supply using the reuse ratio proposed as an intuitive criterion to quantify the degree of influence of indirect wastewater reuse on stream water irrigation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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