Rucker J.C.,The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2011
This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Zhadanov S.I.,The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography | Year: 2016
OBJECTIVE: Beyond fat suppression (FS), the efficacy of (fat-water separation or Dixon [FWD]) Dixon imaging in gadolinium-enhanced spine imaging has yet to be validated. This study evaluated enhanced opposed-phase (OP) and fat-only (FO) images along with water-only (WO; FS) images against traditional unenhanced techniques and rated the incremental value of in-phase imaging in patients with presumed neoplastic focal spine lesions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 36 subjects with focal spine lesions imaged with FWD was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS: Enhanced OP, WO, and FO images were of significant value in detection of osseous lesions, surpassing the lesion conspicuity with conventional techniques both qualitatively and quantitatively, although the impact of in-phase imaging was limited. Water-only imaging performed well for FS. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced FO, WO, and OP outperform traditional techniques, providing reliable lesion characterization and highest conspicuity. In-phase imaging offered limited impact on the subjective assessment of enhancement. The added value and robustness of FWD, particularly the unique contrast provided by FO imaging, suggests consideration for routine use for postgadolinium spine imaging. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
De Los Reyes K.,The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Neurosurgery | Year: 2010
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become routine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Because both of these disorders are common in patients older than the age of 60, neurosurgeons are likely to encounter increasing numbers of patients who require DBS surgery but who already have another electronic medical implant such as a cardiac pacemaker/defibrillator or intrathecal infusion pump, raising the concern that one device might interfere with the performance of the other. Herein we report a modification of surgical technique resulting in the successful use of thalamic DBS to treat disabling essential tremor in a man with a previously implanted cochlear implant. INTERVENTION AND TECHNIQUE: The presence of the cochlear implant necessitated a number of modifications to our standard surgical technique including surgical removal of the subgaleal magnet that holds the receiver to the scalp and the use of computed tomography instead of magnetic resonance imaging to target the thalamus. More than a year after surgery, the patient is enjoying continued tremor suppression and an enhanced quality of life. The presence of the DBS device has not interfered with the proper functioning of his cochlear implant. DBS can be used successfully in patients with a previously implanted cochlear implant. The operating neurosurgeon should be aware of the limitations of intraoperative imaging and the need to coordinate with an otologic surgeon for maximum patient benefit.
Gainsburg D.M.,The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Minerva Anestesiologica | Year: 2012
The anesthetic concerns of patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) are primarily related to the use of pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg position. This combination will affect cerebrovascular, respiratory and hemodynamic homeostasis. Possible non-surgical complications range from mild subcutaneous emphysema to devastating ischemic optic neuropathy. The anesthetic management of RALP patients involves a thorough preoperative evaluation, careful positioning on the operative table, managing ventilation issues, and appropriate fluid management. Close coordination between the anesthesia and surgical teams is required for a successful surgery. This review will discuss the anesthetic concerns and perioperative management of patients presenting for RALP. © 2012 Edizioni Minerva Medica.
Bytzer P.,Copenhagen University |
Connolly S.J.,Hamilton Health Sciences |
Yang S.,Hamilton Health Sciences |
Ezekowitz M.,Jefferson Medical College and Lankenau Medical Center |
And 3 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2013
Background & Aims: Dabigatran is an oral and direct inhibitor of thrombin. In a study of patients with atrial fibrillation (the RE-LY trial), twice as many subjects given dabigatran reported dyspepsia-like symptoms compared with those given warfarin (controls). We analyzed data from this trial to quantify upper gastrointestinal nonbleeding adverse events (NB-UGI AEs). Methods: We analyzed the AE database from the RE-LY trial (18,113 subjects) and assigned NB-UGI AEs to 4 groups: those associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia, dysmotility, or gastroduodenal injury. We analyzed frequency, timing, and severity, and clinical variables associated with NB-UGI AEs. Results: NB-UGI AEs occurred in 16.9% of subjects given dabigatran and in 9.4% of controls (relative risk [RR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66%-1.97%; P < .001). Rates of AEs were not associated with the dose of dabigatran. Among subjects with any UGI symptom who were given dabigatran (n = 2045), symptoms were rated as mild in 46.3%, moderate in 44.8%, and severe in 8.9%; these values were similar to those of controls. GERD-associated NB-UGI AEs were most frequent among the 4 groups (compared with controls, RR, 3.71; 95% CI, 2.98%-4.62%; P < .001). Four percent of subjects stopped taking dabigatran because of NB-UGI AEs (most within 3 months of starting therapy), compared with 1.7% of controls (RR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.90%-2.88%; P < .001). NB-UGI AEs slightly increased risk of major GI bleeding among subjects given dabigatran and controls (6.8% vs 2.3%, P < .001). Conclusions: Among patients given dabigatran for atrial fibrillation, NB-UGI AEs are generally mild or moderate; 4% stopped taking the drug over a median of 21.7 months. The greatest increase was in GERD-type NB-UGI AEs. These observations should guide management and prevention strategies. © 2013 AGA Institute.