The Montreal Childrens Hospital

Montréal, Canada

The Montreal Childrens Hospital

Montréal, Canada
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Waissbluth S.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Daniel S.J.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Daniel S.J.,McGill University
Hearing Research | Year: 2013

Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic agent widely used for a variety of cancer types. Unfortunately, its use leads to dose limiting side effects such as ototoxicity. Up to 93% of patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy will develop progressive and irreversible sensorineural hearing loss which leads to a decreased quality of life in cancer survivors. No treatment is currently available for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. It appears that cisplatin causes apoptosis by binding DNA, activating the inflammatory cascade as well as generating oxidative stress in the cell. Various studies have aimed to assess the potential protective effects of compounds such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, caspase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents and calcium channel blockers against the toxicity caused by cisplatin in the inner ear with variable degrees of protection. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains unclear. This review summarizes all of the known transporters that could play a role in cisplatin influx, leading to cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The following were evaluated: copper transporters, organic cation transporters, the transient receptor potential channel family, calcium channels, multidrug resistance associated proteins, mechanotransduction channels and chloride channels. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | McGill University, The Montreal Childrens Hospital and Hospital for Sick Children
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery | Year: 2016

To retrospectively determine the prevalence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using head ultrasound (HUS) and MRI, and to compare the incidence of IVH in term babies with HIE treated by therapeutic hypothermia versus those managed conventionally.A total of 61 term neonates from two institutions were diagnosed with HIE shortly after birth. Thirty infants from one institution were treated with whole body hypothermia. These infants had to satisfy the entry criteria for the neonatal hypothermia protocol of the institution. Thirty-one neonates underwent conventional treatment at the second institution. At that time, hypothermia was not yet a standard of care at that institution. All the neonates underwent HUS in their first 23 days of life. The 54 survivors also underwent MRI. The imaging studies were all reviewed for IVH.Amongst the 30 babies, who received whole body hypothermia, there were 18 males and 12 females, the mean birth weight was 3.5 kg (2.5 to 5.2 kg), and the HUS study was performed within 14.8 to 41 hours of life. The group of 31 infants treated conventionally was comprised of 12 boys and 19 girls, the infants had an average birth weight of 3.3 kg (2.3 to 4.2 kg), and they underwent HUS 1 to 23 days after birth, with only five children being older than 1 week at the time of the imaging studies. Four of the 61 infants (7%) were diagnosed with IVH on HUS. Three were confirmed with MRI. The fourth case showed a bilateral enlarged choroid plexus on HUS, but IVH could not be confirmed with MRI, as the infant did not survive. In the group of neonates treated with hypothermia, there were three cases (10%) of IVH, whereas in the group managed conventionally, IVH occurred in one infant (3%).Our study shows that IVH remains uncommon in term infants with HIE. IVH was more prevalent in the group treated with hypothermia.

PubMed | Childrens Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, University of Toronto, The Montreal Childrens Hospital, University of British Columbia and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Type: | Journal: BMC palliative care | Year: 2016

There are identified gaps in the care provided to children with cancer based on the self-identified lack of education for health care professionals in pediatric palliative care and in the perceptions of bereaved parents who describe suboptimal care. In order to address these gaps, we will implement and evaluate a national roll-out of Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Pediatrics (EPEC-Pediatrics), using a Train-the-Trainer model.In this study we are using a pre- post-test design and an integrated knowledge translation approach to assess the impact of the educational roll-out in four areas: 1) self-assessed knowledge of health professionals; 2) knowledge dissemination outcomes; 3) practice change outcomes; and 4) quality of palliative care. The quality of palliative care will be assessed using data from three sources: a) parent and child surveys about symptoms, quality of life and care provided; b) health record reviews of deceased patients; and c) bereaved parent surveys about end-of-life and bereavement care. After being trained in EPEC-Pediatrics, Master Facilitators will train Regional Teams affiliated with 16 pediatric oncology programs in Canada. Each team will consist of three to five health professionals representing oncology, palliative care, and the community. Each team member will complete online modules and attend one of two face-to-face conferences, where they will receive training and materials to teach the EPEC-Pediatrics curriculum to End-Users in their region. Regional Teams will also choose a Tailored Implementation of Practice Standards (TIPS) Kit to guide implementation of a quality improvement project in their region; support will be provided via quarterly meetings with Co-Leads and via a listserv and webinars with other teams.Through this study we aim to raise the level of pediatric palliative care education amongst health care professionals in Canada. Our study will be a significant step forward in evaluation of the impact of EPEC-Pediatrics both on dissemination outcomes and on care quality at a national level. Based on the anticipated success of our project we hope to expand the EPEC-Pediatrics roll-out to health professionals who care for children with non-oncological life-threatening conditions.

Munguia R.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Munguia R.,McGill University | Sahmkow S.I.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Funnell W.R.J.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2010

Objective: Ototoxicity is currently the most frequent dose-limiting side effect of cisplatinum chemotherapy. To date, there is no protocol to prevent dose-related ototoxicity, despite its prevalence and predictability. Previous animal studies have found lactate to be effective in the prevention of cisplatinum-induced ototoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the protective benefits of transtympanic Ringer's lactate in the prevention of cisplatinum-induced ototoxicity. Study Design: A randomized prospective controlled trial was conducted in an animal model. Setting: Animal care research facilities of The Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute. Subjects and Methods: A total of 44 chinchillas were exposed to systemic cisplatinum injected intraperitoneally in divided cycles to reach the targeted cumulative dosage of 16 mg/kg. Ototopical application of Ringer's lactate solution 0.2 mL twice per day during the chemotherapy cycles was performed. Each animal had one experimental (Ringer's) and one control ear. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were collected for a wide range of frequencies (between 1 and 16 kHz), and scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the protective effects of Ringer's lactate. Results: Ototopical application of Ringer's lactate solution in our established chinchilla animal model did not provide an otoprotective effect as measured by the DPOAE response and electron microscopy. Conclusion: In our study, the intratympanic application of Ringer's lactate solution through a tympanostomy ventilation tube did not provide an otoprotective effect. Further studies are needed to better assess the otoprotective or ototoxic effects of Ringer's lactate and other antioxidants on animal and human hearing. © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.

Akinpelu O.V.,McGill University | Waissbluth S.,McGill University | Daniel S.J.,McGill University | Daniel S.J.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Objectives: High levels of unconjugated bilirubin have been associated with neuronal damage. The auditory brain nuclei and the inferior colliculi are often the first part of the brainstem to be involved, often leading to hearing abnormalities. A systematic review of clinical studies was conducted to evaluate the effect of hyperbilirubinemia on hearing in term newborns, to show the relationship between hearing function and bilirubin levels as well as the effect of treatment. Methods: Eligible studies were identified through searches of electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PubMed and The Cochrane Library. Articles obtained were independently reviewed by 2 authors using inclusion criteria to identify eligible studies. The search was restricted to articles written in English, French and Spanish and published between 1970 and 2010. Data extracted included study type, number of patients, bilirubin levels, hyperbilirubinemia criteria, hearing assessment methods, time of hearing assessment and outcome measures. Results: The nineteen articles included showed heterogeneity regarding the time of hearing test and hyperbilirubinemia criteria. The incidence of hearing loss at initial testing ranged between 13.2-83.3% and 6.7-14.3% at 3 months follow-up. Five studies showed a rising incidence of hearing loss with increasing levels of serum bilirubin. Conclusions: Hyperbilirubinemia resulted in abnormal hearing assessment in up to 83.3% of term newborns. Greater hearing abnormalities were observed with rising serum bilirubin levels. Treatment of hyperbilirubinemia led to a considerable decrease in the incidence of hearing loss. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

El Hayek J.,McGill University | El Hayek J.,Notre Dame University - Louaize | Pham T.T.,McGill University | Finch S.,McGill University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey reported vitamin D status in a representative sample of Canadians (6-79 y); however, children ≤6 y were not assessed. Our objective was to measure vitamin D intake from food and supplements, sun exposure, and biological vitamin D status of children ages 2 through 5 y in Montréal (latitude 45°N). Preschoolers (n = 508) were recruited between June 2010 and 2011 in a random sample of licensed daycares in the regions of greater Montréal, Canada in a cross-sectional study. The total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was measured using a chemiluminescence assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Dietary intake was assessed during one 24-h period plus a 30-d FFQ. Socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometry, and sun exposure data were collected. Plasma 25(OH)D was ≥50 nmol/L in 88% of children, whereas 49.4% had concentrations ≥75 nmol/L during the 1-y study. Almost 95% of preschoolers had vitamin D intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and 4.8% of preschoolers ≤3.9 y and 25.9% of preschoolers ≥4 y had calcium intakes less than the EAR. Plasma 25(OH)D was different across age, income, sun index, milk intake, and dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake tertiles. Despite vitamin D intakes less than the EAR, the vitamin D status of Montr éal preschoolers attending daycare is mostly satisfactory even in winter, suggesting that the EAR value is too high in the context of typical exogenous intakes of vitamin D in North America. J. Nutr. 143: 154-160, 2013. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Mujica-Mota M.A.,McGill Auditory science Laboratory | Mujica-Mota M.A.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Lehnert S.,Montreal General Hospital | Devic S.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Hearing Research | Year: 2014

Patients that receive radiotherapy are at risk of late sensorineural hearing loss when the inner ear is included within the radiation field. Preclinical and human temporal bone studies have shown that there is differential damage to cochlear structures depending on the amount of dose delivered to the inner ear. Invitro studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the main initial actors in radiation-induced damage. The interaction of ROS with different cellular components can result in different apoptotic pathways. Therefore, approaches to radioprotection are mainly aimed to reduce ROS production through antioxidants. This review summarizes recent research in the field that can improve the understanding and boost preventive efforts of this adverse effect. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Hazell T.J.,McGill University | Vanstone C.A.,McGill University | Rodd C.J.,McGill University | Rodd C.J.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry | Year: 2013

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of bone mineral density (BMD) are generally not feasible in fieldwork. The present study determined the agreement between BMD measured by DXA and portable peripheral DXA in preschool aged children. Fifty-seven children (4.2 ± 1.0. yr) had their nondominant distal forearm scanned using a peripheral DXA scanner (PIXI; GE Medical Systems Lunar, Madison, WI) at their daycare and a DXA (4500A Discovery Series; Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA) at our research clinic. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and Bland-Altman plots were performed to examine the agreement between measurements. Data were also divided into tertiles for cross-classification analysis and calculation of kappa coefficients. Distal forearm BMD measured by PIXI was significantly correlated with DXA measures of total forearm BMD (r> 0.51; p< 0.001), proximal 1/3 BMD (r> 0.41; p< 0.001), mid-BMD (r> 0.37; p< 0.001), and ultradistal (UD) BMD (r> 0.57; p< 0.001). Cross-classification in the same or adjacent tertile between measures (UD forearm: 96.5%; UD radius: 94.4%; total forearm: 87.7%; total radius: 84.2%) resulted in weighted kappa coefficients of 0.46, 0.58, 0.42, and 0.43, respectively. Bland-Altman plots further clarified these agreements as all had low bias (UD forearm: bias. = 0.003 ± 0.002; UD radius: -0.015 ± 0.021; total forearm: -0.062 ± 0.027; total radius: -0.077 ± 0.026). These results demonstrate that portable DXA measures of forearm BMD agree moderately with DXA. © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

Pandya K.A.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Puligandla P.S.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Puligandla P.S.,Montreal Childrens Hospital
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2015

The management of pulmonary hypertension is multi-faceted, with therapies directed at supporting cardiovascular and pulmonary function, treating the underlying cause (if feasible), and preventing irreversible remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Recently, manipulation of signaling pathways and mediators contained within the pulmonary vascular endothelial cell has become a new target. This article will review the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension and the broad principles involved in its management, with specific emphasis on pharmacological therapies directed at the pulmonary vascular endothelium. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

COte A.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Fanous A.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Almajed A.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital | Lacroix Y.,The Montreal Childrens Hospital
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2015

Pierre Robin sequence is not a rare condition and paediatric specialists caring for respiratory related issues are likely to encounter cases in their practice. There have been a few recent reviews on the topic, mostly focusing on the surgical interventions performed for cases with severe airway obstruction. In the present review, we will highlight the different challenges that remain today in the global evaluation of infants afflicted with this condition through a thorough review of the medical literature, giving the clinician a full scope of the disease and of the various management options. The need for an improved objective evaluation of airway obstruction and for a better classification will be emphasized. We are therefore proposing a novel classification scheme that will better account for respiratory and feeding difficulties in these infants. Finally, many knowledge gaps persist regarding this condition, underlining the necessity for further research both in the genetic field and regarding the outcome of therapy. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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