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Lussiana C.,Population Services International | Floridia M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | do Rosario J.M.,The MENTOR Initiative | Fortes F.,Ministry of Health | Allan R.,The MENTOR Initiative
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined. Methods: Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses. Sales in private pharmacies of sAL and four antimalarial monotherapies between 2009 and 2013 were organized in four time-periods, and analyzed using generalized linear models for repeated measures. A secondary analysis evaluated changes in relative market share. Results: We analyzed data from 34 pharmacies at four time points, taken from a larger survey that involved 165 pharmacies between June 2009 and March 2013. The sAL, following its introduction, became the dominant antimalarial treatment in the private sector, usually exceeding the total sales of all antimalarial monotherapies combined (1480/2800 total treatment courses, 52.8% of all sales in March 2013). Sales of monotherapies decreased significantly, but did not stop, representing 36.7% (1028/2800) of sales at the end of the survey. Conclusions: Subsidized ACTs can attain rapidly a high relative market share. Their introduction reduced, but did not eliminate the demand for less effective monotherapies, that might favor parasite resistance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.


PubMed | The MENTOR Initiative, Ministry of Health, Population Services International and Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined.Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses. Sales in private pharmacies of sAL and four antimalarial monotherapies between 2009 and 2013 were organized in four time-periods, and analyzed using generalized linear models for repeated measures. A secondary analysis evaluated changes in relative market share.We analyzed data from 34 pharmacies at four time points, taken from a larger survey that involved 165 pharmacies between June 2009 and March 2013. The sAL, following its introduction, became the dominant antimalarial treatment in the private sector, usually exceeding the total sales of all antimalarial monotherapies combined (1480/2800 total treatment courses, 52.8% of all sales in March 2013). Sales of monotherapies decreased significantly, but did not stop, representing 36.7% (1028/2800) of sales at the end of the survey.Subsidized ACTs can attain rapidly a high relative market share. Their introduction reduced, but did not eliminate the demand for less effective monotherapies, that might favor parasite resistance.


PubMed | British Petroleum, Medical Service of Sonamet, Malaria Control Programme, National Malaria Control Programme and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of vector ecology : journal of the Society for Vector Ecology | Year: 2015

From 2003 to 2007, entomological surveys were conducted in Lobito town (Benguela Province, Angola) to determine which Anopheles species were present and to identify the vectors responsible for malaria transmission in areas where workers of the Sonamet Company live. Two types of surveys were conducted: (1) time and space surveys in the low and upper parts of Lobito during the rainy and dry periods; (2) a two-year longitudinal study in Sonamet workers houses provided with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN), PermaNet, along with the neighboring community. Both species, An. coluzzii (M molecular form) and An. gambiae (S molecular form), were collected. Anopheles coluzzii was predominant during the dry season in the low part of Lobito where larvae develop in natural ponds and temporary pools. However, during the rainy season, An. gambiae was found in higher proportions in the upper part of the town where larvae were collected in domestic water tanks built near houses. Anopheles melas and An. listeri were captured in higher numbers during the dry season and in the low part of Lobito where larvae develop in stagnant brackish water pools. The infectivity rates of An. gambiae s.l. varied from 0.90% to 3.41%.


PubMed | The MENTOR Initiative and Ministry of Health
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2015

Current day malaria cases and deaths are indicative of a lack of access to both methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; an important determinant of treatment efficacy is adherence. This study is a follow up to the baseline study of adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) carried out in Garissa District in 2010. The study presented evaluates any changes in adherence levels which may have occurred in the area during this period and after nearly three years of sustained use of ACT across the public health sector.The study was carried out in Garissa County in the North Eastern Province of Kenya and included patients fitting the suspected malaria case definition and having been prescribed AL, regardless of confirmatory diagnosis. A questionnaire assessed the intake of AL via both self-reporting by the participant and observation of blister packs by the interviewer. On separate occasions exit interviews with patients and observations of prescribers were also carried out.Of the 218 participants enrolled, 195 were successfully followed up. 60% of participants were found to be adherent to the three-day AL regimen, this is 4.7% lower than the proportion of participants adherent in 2010; the result of a two-sided z-test was not significant (p=0.23). The odds of the patient being adherent to AL increased by 65% with each additional correct statement regarding how to take AL that a patient could recall (between zero and four statements), this was the only variable significantly associated with patient adherence (p=0.01).Sustaining the ACT adherence rates at the 2010 levels, through 2.5years of insecurity in the study area is an achievement and suggests that if security can be improved barriers to improving health service quality and patient adherence to AL would be removed. This study, by looking specifically at anti-malarial adherence over a prolonged period and in a setting of severe conflict, provides a valuable and rare insight in to the challenges and barriers to ACT adherence in such settings.


PubMed | Kenya Medical Research Institute, The MENTOR Initiative, Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Health
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2015

North East Kenya is an area of semi-arid terrain, prone to malaria epidemics. The distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has long been a key malaria intervention, however, for nomadic populations who live and sleep outside, in harsh climates and areas with increasing reports of exophagic behaviour of mosquitoes, traditional LLINs are often inadequate. This study investigates the acceptability of non-mesh LLINs, specifically designed to suit nomadic, outdoor sleeping communities.In September 2011, 13,922 non-mesh LLINs were distributed to 8,511 nomadic households in Garissa County, North East Province, Kenya. A prospective, longitudinal study design was used to assess the acceptability of this novel type of LLIN. Cross-sectional household surveys, focus group discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews (KIs) were used to collect data on attitudes and practices regarding the Dumuria nets.A very high level of acceptability was reported with 95.3% of respondents stating they liked the nets. Of the factors reportedly determining net use the most frequently mentioned was vulnerability. Of those with concerns about the nets, the colour (white) was the most frequently reported.The tailoring of LLINs to specific communities and contexts leads to increased levels of acceptability. Large-scale, blanket net distribution campaigns, which are currently the standard practice, do not cater for the specific and nuanced needs of the differing communities they often serve. This non-mesh LLIN offers a highly effective and desirable malaria prevention option to a typically hard to reach and underserved nomadic population at increased risk of malaria infection.


Grietens K.P.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Muela Ribera J.,Partners for Applied Social science | Soto V.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Tenorio A.,Organismo Andino de Salud Convenio Hipolito Unanue | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. Methods: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district) between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses). Results: A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2%) than in those with walls (73.8%) (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001). Conclusion: Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting information on net preference should be developed before any LLIN procurement decision is made. © 2013 Grietens et al.


Temu E.A.,The MENTOR Initiative | Temu E.A.,Abt Associates Inc. | Maxwell C.,The MENTOR Initiative | Munyekenye G.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) have both proven to be effective malaria vector control strategies in Africa and the new technology of insecticide treated durable wall lining (DL) is being evaluated. Sustaining these interventions at high coverage levels is logistically challenging and, furthermore, the increase in insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors may reduce the efficacy of these chemical based interventions. Monitoring of vector populations and evaluation of the efficacy of insecticide based control approaches should be integral components of malaria control programmes. This study reports on entomological survey conducted in 2011 in Bomi County, Liberia. Methods: Anopheles gambiae larvae were collected from four sites in Bomi, Liberia, and reared in a field insectary. Two to five days old female adult An gambiae s.l. were tested using WHO tube (n = 2027) and cone (n = 580) bioassays in houses treated with DL or IRS. A sample of mosquitoes (n = 169) were identified to species/molecular form and screened for the presence of knock down resistance (kdr) alleles associated with pyrethroid resistance. Results: Anopheles gambiae s.l tested were resistant to deltamethrin but fully susceptible to bendiocarb and fenithrothion. The corrected mortality of local mosquitoes exposed to houses treated with deltamethrin either via IRS or DL was 12% and 59% respectively, suggesting that resistance may affect the efficacy of these interventions. The presence of pyrethroid resistance was associated with a high frequency of the 1014F kdr allele (90.5%) although this mutation alone cannot explain the resistance levels observed. Conclusion: High prevalence of resistance to deltamethrin in Bomi County may reduce the efficacy of malaria strategies relying on this class of insecticide. The findings highlight the urgent need to expand and sustain monitoring of insecticide resistance in Liberian malaria vectors, evaluate the effectiveness of existing interventions and develop appropriate resistance management strategies. © 2012 Temu et al.


Lopes S.C.,The MENTOR Initiative | Cabral A.J.,Center for Malaria and Tropical Medicine | de Sousa B.,University of Coimbra
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2014

Background: The shortage in human resources for health affects most dramatically developing countries which frequently use community health workers (CHW) as the basis for health programmes and services. The traditional definition refers CHWs as members of the community who are recruited and trained in health prevention and promotion to provide services within their community. In Guinea-Bissau, CHWs play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diarrheal diseases - one of the main health problems in the country.Methods: This study is based on 22 CHW, 79% of the total number of CHW in the Sanitary Region of Bolama. The main goal was to assess how training CHW on diarrheal diseases impacted the accuracy of the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases in children under the age of 5 years. Three evaluations were made throughout time - one evaluation before the training and two follow-up evaluations.An observation grid was developed to evaluate the identified signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments prescribed by the CHW in consultations to children with a suspicion of diarrhoeal disease. A similar grid was filled by a medical doctor who took the role of the external validation standard.Friedman's variance analysis and Cochran's Q test were performed to compare the accuracy depicted by CHWs in identifying items throughout time. A logistic regression model was also used to check the possible influence of socio-demographic characteristics of CHWs on the accuracy of the diagnosis and treatment prescribed by the CHW.Results: The results show that CHWs improve significantly their performance in identifying the correct diagnosis in the first follow-up moment after the training (P = 0.001, n = 22) but, 3 months later, the effectiveness decreases. No statistical evidence was found for the logistic regression models applied.This progressive loss of performance after training may occur because CHWs fail to apply treatment algorithms and guidelines over time.A limited set of socio-demographic characteristics of the CHWs can influence their performance and should not be disregarded when selecting CHW candidates.Conclusion: The selection, supervision, support and continuous training of CHW are as important as the training provided. © 2014 Lopes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Asgary R.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Grigoryan Z.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Naderi R.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Allan R.,The MENTOR Initiative
Global Public Health | Year: 2012

Effectiveness of providing health education solely via mass media and the providers' targeted training in malaria control needs further exploration. During pre-epidemic season, we conducted a qualitative study of 40 providers and community leaders using focus groups, comprehensive semi-structured interviews and consultation observations. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed for major themes. Community leaders believe that they can acquire malaria from contaminated water, animal products, air or garbage. Consequently, they underutilise bed nets and other protective measures due to perceived continued exposure to other potential malaria sources. Practitioners do not provide individualised health counselling and risk assessment to patients during sick visits, leading to a range of misconceptions about malaria based on limited knowledge from rumours and mass media, and a strong belief in the curative power of traditional medicine. Providers overdiagnose malaria clinically and underutilise available tests due to time constraints, and the lack of training and resources to correctly diagnose other illnesses. Subsequently, misdiagnoses lead them to question the efficacy of recommended treatments. Promoting counselling during clinical encounters to address patient misconception and change risky behaviour is warranted. Wider-ranging ongoing training could enable providers to properly diagnose and manage differential diagnoses to manage malaria better. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


The shortage in human resources for health affects most dramatically developing countries which frequently use community health workers (CHW) as the basis for health programmes and services. The traditional definition refers CHWs as members of the community who are recruited and trained in health prevention and promotion to provide services within their community. In Guinea-Bissau, CHWs play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diarrheal diseases - one of the main health problems in the country.This study is based on 22 CHW, 79% of the total number of CHW in the Sanitary Region of Bolama. The main goal was to assess how training CHW on diarrheal diseases impacted the accuracy of the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases in children under the age of 5 years. Three evaluations were made throughout time - one evaluation before the training and two follow-up evaluations.An observation grid was developed to evaluate the identified signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments prescribed by the CHW in consultations to children with a suspicion of diarrhoeal disease. A similar grid was filled by a medical doctor who took the role of the external validation standard.Friedmans variance analysis and Cochrans Q test were performed to compare the accuracy depicted by CHWs in identifying items throughout time. A logistic regression model was also used to check the possible influence of socio-demographic characteristics of CHWs on the accuracy of the diagnosis and treatment prescribed by the CHW.The results show that CHWs improve significantly their performance in identifying the correct diagnosis in the first follow-up moment after the training (P=0.001, n=22) but, 3 months later, the effectiveness decreases. No statistical evidence was found for the logistic regression models applied. This progressive loss of performance after training may occur because CHWs fail to apply treatment algorithms and guidelines over time. A limited set of socio-demographic characteristics of the CHWs can influence their performance and should not be disregarded when selecting CHW candidates.The selection, supervision, support and continuous training of CHW are as important as the training provided.

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