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Frost S.,The McCusker Alzheimers Research Foundation
Current Alzheimer research | Year: 2013

A screening process that could provide early and accurate diagnosis or prognosis for Alzheimer's disease (AD) would enable earlier intervention, and enable current and future treatments to be more effective. Ocular pathology and changes to vision and ocular function are being investigated for early detection and monitoring of AD. To explore the relationship between pupil flash response (PFR) parameters, AD and brain amyloid plaque burden. Nineteen AD and seventy healthy control (HC) participants were recruited from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing. The potential correlations between PFR parameters and 1) AD and 2) brain amyloid plaque burden in the HC group (as a pre-clinical feature of AD), were investigated in this study. Our results demonstrate statistically significant relationships between PFR parameters, neocortical plaque burden and AD. A logistical model combining PFR parameters provided AD-classification performance with sensitivity 84.1%, specificity 78.3% and area under the curve 89.6%. Furthermore, some of the AD specific PFR parameters were also associated with neocortical plaque burden in pre-clinical AD. These PFR changes show potential as an adjunct for noninvasive, cost-effective screening for pre-clinical AD. Source

Sohrabi H.R.,Edith Cowan University | Sohrabi H.R.,The McCusker Alzheimers Research Foundation | Sohrabi H.R.,University of Western Australia | Bates K.A.,The McCusker Alzheimers Research Foundation | And 38 more authors.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. © 2015 Sohrabi, Bates, Weinborn, Bucks, Rainey-Smith, Rodrigues, Bird, Brown, Beilby, Howard, Criddle, Wraith, Taddei, Martins, Paton, Shah, Dhaliwal, Mehta, Foster, Martins, Lautenschlager, Mastaglia, Laws and Martins. Source

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