Decatur, IL, United States
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Puls C.L.,Urbana University | Puls C.L.,Elanco Animal Health | Rojo A.,Urbana University | Ellis M.,Urbana University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The study used a randomized complete block design (blocking factor was date of start on test) with 5 treatments: 1) physically castrated barrows (PC), 2) intact males (IM), 3) gilts (G), 4) immunologically castrated barrows (IC), and 5) immunologically castrated barrows fed ractopamine at 5 mg/kg (IC+RAC). The study used 192 pigs and was performed from the 16 wk of age (67.2 ± 2.52 kg BW) to a pen mean BW of 132.5 ± 3.60 kg. For IC+RAC, ractopamine was fed for the final 23 d of the study. Pigs were housed in groups of 4 (10 groups for PC, IM, G, and IC and 8 groups for IC+RAC) in a finishing building at a floor space of 1.18 m2/pig. Diets were formulated to meet requirements of IM except that the diet for the IC+RAC fed during the ractopamine feeding period was formulated to meet requirements of pigs on that treatment. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study period and were individually weighed at the start, wk 2 and 4, and subsequently every week until the end of study. For the overall study period, IC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG than the other genders (1,150, 1,024, 1,064, and 954 g/d for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 25.8) and required fewer days to reach slaughter weight than the other genders (58.1, 61.6, 61.6, and 66.5 d for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 1.26). Overall ADFIwas less (P ≤ 0.05) for IM and G than IC and PC, which were similar (P > 0.05) in this respect (3.11, 3.06, 2.68, and 2.75 kg/d for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 0.061). Overall G:F was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for IM than the other genders; IC had greater overall G:F than PC and G, which were similar in this respect (0.371, 0.335, 0.397, and 0.347 kg/kg for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 0.0068). Immunologically castrated barrows had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (30.7%) and ADFI(22.5%) than PC from the second week following the second Improvest dose to the end of the study. During the ractopamine feeding period, IC+RAC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (11.6%) and G:F (17.3%) than IC. The results of this study confirmed previously observed gender differences and effects of ractopamine on growth performance and that IC grew faster and had greater feed efficiency than PC during the study period. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Puls C.L.,Urbana University | Puls C.L.,Elanco Animal Health | Ellis M.,Urbana University | McKeith F.K.,Urbana University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The study was performed to evaluate the effect of feeding ractopamine (RAC) to physically castrated barrows (PC), immunologically castrated barrows (IC), and gilts (gilts) using a randomized complete block design with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) sex (PC, IC, and gilts) and 2) RAC inclusion level (0, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg). The IC received 2 doses of gonadotropin releasing factor analog–diphtheria toxoid conjugate (Improvest; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at the start of the study (wk 16 of age; 69.6 ± 2.96 kg BW) and 4 wk later. The study used 180 pigs housed in groups of 4 (5 groups/sex × RAC subclass) and was performed over a fixed time of 61 d with RAC being fed for the final 26 d of study. Diets were formulated to meet requirements of intact males for the first 35 d and of intact males fed 7.5 mg/kg RAC for the remainder of the study. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study period. At the end of the study, pigs were harvested at a commercial facility and HCW and last rib backfat thickness were measured. There were no treatment interactions (P > 0.05) for any variables. For the overall study period, IC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) overall ADG compared to PC, which grew faster (P ≤ 0.05) than gilts (1,246, 1,083, and 1,025 g/d for IC, PC, and gilts, respectively; SEM = 20.3); ADFI was lower (P ≤ 0.05) for gilts than IC and PC, which had similar ADFI (3.36, 3.37, and 2.87 kg/d, respectively; SEM = 0.051); and G:F was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for IC than gilts and greater for gilts than PC (0.371, 0.322, and 0.358 kg/kg, respectively; SEM = 0.0039). For the period from the second dose to the end of study, IC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (28.6%), ADFI (12.3%), and G:F (14.3%) than PC. Carcass yield was lower (P ≤ 0.05) for IC compared to PC and gilts (72.8, 75.0, and 74.6%, respectively; SEM = 0.25). Feeding RAC increased (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (15.7 and 14.5% for 5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), G:F (17.1 and 16.4%, respectively), carcass weight (3.7 and 3.2 kg, respectively), and carcass yield (1.0 and 1.0 percentage unit, respectively) compared to the control. These results highlight sex differences in and effects of RACon growth and carcass characteristics and suggest that the relative response to RAC is similar in IC and PC. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Sinai University, The Maschhoffs, Iowa State University, University of Maryland University College and University of Arkansas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2016

Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content.Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with EpiSNPmpi. False discovery rate (FDR) was controlled at 5% and was limited to well-represented genotypic combinations. Epistatic interactions were detected for 37 triacylglyceride (TAG), 36 phospholipid (PL) fatty acid traits, and three weight traits. A total of 6,181, 7,168, and 0 significant epistatic interactions (FDR<0.05, 50-animals per genotype combination) were associated with Triacylglyceride fatty acids, Phospholipid fatty acids, and weight traits respectively and most were additive-by-additive interactions. A large number of interactions occurred in potential regions of regulatory control along the chromosomes where genes related to fatty acid metabolism reside.Many fatty acids were associated with epistatic interactions. Despite a large number of significant interactions, there are a limited number of genomic locations that harbored these interactions. While larger population sizes are needed to accurately validate and quantify these epistatic interactions, the current findings point towards additional genetic variance that can be accounted for within these fatty acid traits.


Badke Y.M.,Michigan State University | Bates R.O.,Michigan State University | Ernst C.W.,Michigan State University | Schwab C.,The Maschhoffs | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Genotype imputation is a cost efficient alternative to use of high density genotypes for implementing genomic selection. The objective of this study was to investigate variables affecting imputation accuracy from low density tagSNP (average distance between tagSNP from 100kb to 1Mb) sets in swine, selected using LD information, physical location, or accuracy for genotype imputation. We compared results of imputation accuracy based on several sets of low density tagSNP of varying densities and selected using three different methods. In addition, we assessed the effect of varying size and composition of the reference panel of haplotypes used for imputation.Results: TagSNP density of at least 1 tagSNP per 340kb (~7000 tagSNP) selected using pairwise LD information was necessary to achieve average imputation accuracy higher than 0.95. A commercial low density (9K) tagSNP set for swine was developed concurrent to this study and an average accuracy of imputation of 0.951 based on these tagSNP was estimated. Construction of a haplotype reference panel was most efficient when these haplotypes were obtained from randomly sampled individuals. Increasing the size of the original reference haplotype panel (128 haplotypes sampled from 32 sire/dam/offspring trios phased in a previous study) led to an overall increase in imputation accuracy (IA = 0.97 with 512 haplotypes), but was especially useful in increasing imputation accuracy of SNP with MAF below 0.1 and for SNP located in the chromosomal extremes (within 5% of chromosome end).Conclusion: The new commercially available 9K tagSNP set can be used to obtain imputed genotypes with high accuracy, even when imputation is based on a comparably small panel of reference haplotypes (128 haplotypes). Average imputation accuracy can be further increased by adding haplotypes to the reference panel. In addition, our results show that randomly sampling individuals to genotype for the construction of a reference haplotype panel is more cost efficient than specifically sampling older animals or trios with no observed loss in imputation accuracy. We expect that the use of imputed genotypes in swine breeding will yield highly accurate predictions of GEBV, based on the observed accuracy and reported results in dairy cattle, where genomic evaluation of some individuals is based on genotypes imputed with the same accuracy as our Yorkshire population. © 2013 Steibel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pilcher C.M.,Urbana University | Pilcher C.M.,Iowa State University | Ellis M.,Urbana University | Rojo-Gomez A.,Urbana University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

The effects of floor space on the trailer and journey time during transport from the farm to the packing plant on indicators of stress (open-mouth breathing, muscle tremors, and skin discoloration) and on the incidence of transport losses (dead on arrival, nonambulatory, noninjured, and nonambulatory, injured) were evaluated in a study involving 160 loads of market-weight pigs (BW 124.7 ± 4.38 kg) using a splitplot design with a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) journey time [main plot; short (<1 h) and long (3 h)] and 2) floor space (subplot; 0.396, 0.415, 0.437, 0.462, 0.489, and 0.520 m 2/pig, which is equivalent to 0.317, 0.332, 0.350, 0.370, 0.391, and 0.416 m 2/100 kg of BW, respectively). Two consecutively loaded trailers were randomly allotted to journey time treatment. Floor space treatments were compared in the front 3 compartments on the top and bottom decks of the trailer and were created by varying the number of pigs per compartment, which confounds the effect of floor space with group size. Of the 17,652 pigs transported in 954 test compartments, 0.24% died or became nonambulatory. Neither journey time nor floor space had an effect (P > 0.05) on the incidence of dead and nonambulatory, injured pigs, or on total transport losses. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between journey time and floor space treatments for the incidences of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs and open-mouth breathing. For 2 of the smallest floor spaces (0.415 and 0.437 m 2/pig), the incidence of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs was greater on short than on long journeys; for the other 4 floor spaces there was no effect (P > 0.05) of journey time. The incidence of open-mouth breathing for the 3 smallest floor spaces was greater (P < 0.05) for short than long journeys, whereas there was no effect (P > 0.05) of journey time for the 3 greatest floor spaces. The frequency of skin discoloration was greater (P < 0.001) for pigs transported at the 2 smallest floor spaces compared with the other 4 floor spaces. In summary, short journey time increased the frequency of indicators of stress after unloading at the plant for pigs transported at smaller floor spaces and also increased the incidence of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs at 2 of the 3 smallest floor spaces. However, neither transport floor space nor journey time had an effect on total losses. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science.


Yoder C.L.,Iowa State University | Schwab C.R.,The Maschhoffs | Fix J.S.,National Swine Registry | Duttlinger V.M.,Tempel Genetics | Baas T.J.,Iowa State University
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

Daily feed intake during lactation was recorded on purebred Yorkshire (n=1587), Landrace (n=2197), and F1 Yorkshire x Landrace (n=6932) litters from day 1 to 22 of lactation. Lactation feed intake (LFI) curves were predicted using a mixed model which included fixed effects of breed, season, parity group (PG), day of lactation, interactions of day with breed and PG, and a covariate for litter size after cross-fostering. Random effects included litter, contemporary group (herd-year-month), dam, and sire nested within breed. Least squares means for each day were used to express LFI curves by breed through day 22 of lactation. Yorkshire and Landrace LFI curves were not different (P=0.09), though both differed from the LFI curve (P<0.05) of F1 sows. Due to a limited number of observations in late lactation, LFI data from days 19 to 22 were not included. Evaluation of the difference in feed intake between 2 consecutive days (DC) of lactation resulted in the following classifications: 3 periods for purebreds, day 1 to 6 (PB1), day 7 to 10 (PB2), and day 11 to 18 (PB3); 2 periods for F1 sows, day 1-5 (C1) and day 6-18 (C2). Average rate of change in intake (ARC), average daily intake (ADI), and variation from predicted LFI values (VAR) metrics were estimated for each period in purebred and F1 sows. Parity group 1 in both purebred and F1 sows had the lowest ARC and ADI metrics, but highest VAR (P<0.05) in each period of lactation. Similar differences were observed for seasonal effects (P<0.05) as LFI curves during summer months represented lower ARC and ADI and higher VAR values compared to all other seasons. For all breeds, increased ARC and ADI metrics resulted in higher 21-day litter weaning weights (P<0.05), while decreasing VAR metrics late in lactation (PB3 and C2) resulted in higher 21-day litter weaning weights and shorter wean-to-first service intervals (P<0.05). Average rate of change increased more quickly in early periods (PB1, PB2, C1) and was lower in late lactation (PB3, C2). An increase in average rate of change in intake, average daily intake, and decreased variation from predicted LFI values during a period of lactation resulted in improved measures of maternal performance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yoder C.L.,Iowa State University | Schwab C.R.,The Maschhoffs | Fix J.S.,National Swine Registry | Stalder K.J.,Iowa State University | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to quantify significant negative deviations (DEV) from predicted daily lactation feed intake values and to estimate their effect on reproductive performance and subsequent intake in purebred and F1 sows. Daily lactation feed intake (LFI) records from day 1 to 22 of lactation from purebred Yorkshire (n=1587 parity records), purebred Landrace (n=2197 parity records), and reciprocal cross F1 (n=6932 parity records) females were used to predict daily LFI values. The mixed model included fixed effects of breed, season, parity group (1, 2, 3 and ≥4), day of lactation, and interactions of day with breed and parity group, and a covariate of litter size after cross-fostering. Random effects included litter, contemporary group (herd-year-month), dam, and sire nested within breed. Deviations from predicted LFI values were quantified using an internally studentized residual (SR). A SR≤-1.71, equivalent to observed LFI at least 1.9. kg less than predicted, was considered a DEV. Zero DEV occurred in 60% of lactation records, while 18% of lactation records had 1 DEV, and 22% of lactation records had ≥2 DEV. Thirty-four percent of negative deviations occurred during the summer months (June, July, August) which was more frequent when compared to the spring (26%), fall (23%), and winter (17%) months. Adjusted 21-day litter weaning weight (LW21) decreased as the number of DEV increased within a single lactation period, and wean-to-first service interval (WTSI) increased when at least 3 DEV occurred within a single lactation. An increase in DEV during early lactation did not affect LW21 or WTSI (P>0.05), though an increase in number of DEV after day 5 of lactation was associated with lower LW21 and longer WTSI. Odds of a negative deviation from predicted LFI occurring on any given day of lactation were estimated as odds ratios. If a DEV occurred the prior day, a DEV was 8.7 and 39.5 times more likely to occur than if a DEV had not occurred for purebred and F1 sows, respectively. In F1 sows, a DEV was 3.1 (P<0.01) times more likely to occur after day 5 of lactation when a DEV occurred on day 1 to 5 of lactation. Negative deviations from predicted LFI values decreased reproductive performance and had a larger effect on performance when they occurred during late lactation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bohl Bormann N.L.,The Maschhoffs | Baxter C.A.,University of Wisconsin - Platteville | Andraski T.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Good L.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Bundy L.G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2010

Frequently, well water is used instead of rainwater to perform rainfall simulations to study P and soil loss in cropping systems. This study was conducted to determine whether the source water used in simulated rainfall studies affects runoff amount and P and sediment concentrations. Rainfall simulation and natural runoff studies were conducted in a corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) field on a Tama silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiudoll) in spring and fall 2004. No significant differences in runoff composition were found between the well and deionized (DI) source waters in the spring rainfall simulation study in corn. The fall rain simulation in alfalfa showed significantly higher runoff volumes and dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations with DI water than with well water. Soil water-extractable P (WEP) measurements showed that rain and DI water extracted similar amounts of P, while well water extracted less P. Using the same source waters in WEP procedures and in rainfall simulations yielded good relationships (r2 = 0.73) between simulated rain runoff DRP and soil WEP concentrations. Natural runoff DRP concentrations measured in the same field treatments as those used in the simulated rainfall studies were much greater than those found in simulated rainfall runoff, but the relative field treatment effects on runoff P concentrations were the same. These results emphasize that simulated rainfall data can provide a relative comparison of treatment effects on runoff composition, but results from simulated rainfall experiments are not likely to duplicate natural runoff composition, regardless of the source water used. © Soil Science Society of America, All rights reserved.


PubMed | Urbana University, Zoetis Inc. and The Maschhoffs
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal science | Year: 2014

The study was performed to evaluate the effect of feeding ractopamine (RAC) to physically castrated barrows (PC), immunologically castrated barrows (IC), and gilts (gilts) using a randomized complete block design with a 3 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) sex (PC, IC, and gilts) and 2) RAC inclusion level (0, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg). The IC received 2 doses of gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate (Improvest; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at the start of the study (wk 16 of age; 69.6 2.96 kg BW) and 4 wk later. The study used 180 pigs housed in groups of 4 (5 groups/sex RAC subclass) and was performed over a fixed time of 61 d with RAC being fed for the final 26 d of study. Diets were formulated to meet requirements of intact males for the first 35 d and of intact males fed 7.5 mg/kg RAC for the remainder of the study. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study period. At the end of the study, pigs were harvested at a commercial facility and HCW and last rib backfat thickness were measured. There were no treatment interactions (P > 0.05) for any variables. For the overall study period, IC had greater (P 0.05) overall ADG compared to PC, which grew faster (P 0.05) than gilts (1,246, 1,083, and 1,025 g/d for IC, PC, and gilts, respectively; SEM = 20.3); ADFI was lower (P 0.05) for gilts than IC and PC, which had similar ADFI (3.36, 3.37, and 2.87 kg/d, respectively; SEM = 0.051); and G:F was greater (P 0.05) for IC than gilts and greater for gilts than PC (0.371, 0.322, and 0.358 kg/kg, respectively; SEM = 0.0039). For the period from the second dose to the end of study, IC had greater (P 0.05) ADG (28.6%), ADFI (12.3%), and G:F (14.3%) than PC. Carcass yield was lower (P 0.05) for IC compared to PC and gilts (72.8, 75.0, and 74.6%, respectively; SEM = 0.25). Feeding RAC increased (P 0.05) ADG (15.7 and 14.5% for 5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), G:F (17.1 and 16.4%, respectively), carcass weight (3.7 and 3.2 kg, respectively), and carcass yield (1.0 and 1.0 percentage unit, respectively) compared to the control. These results highlight sex differences in and effects of RAC on growth and carcass characteristics and suggest that the relative response to RAC is similar in IC and PC.

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