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Ripps H.,Illinois College | Chappell R.L.,The Marine Biological Laboratory
Molecular vision | Year: 2014

This review covers a broad range of topics related to the actions of zinc on the cells of the vertebrate retina. Much of this review relies on studies in which zinc was applied exogenously, and therefore the results, albeit highly suggestive, lack physiologic significance. This view stems from the fact that the concentrations of zinc used in these studies may not be encountered under the normal circumstances of life. This caveat is due to the lack of a zinc-specific probe with which to measure the concentrations of Zn(2+) that may be released from neurons or act upon them. However, a great deal of relevant information has been garnered from studies in which Zn(2+) was chelated, and the effects of its removal compared with findings obtained in its presence. For a more complete discussion of the consequences of depletion or excess in the body's trace elements, the reader is referred to a recent review by Ugarte et al. in which they provide a detailed account of the interactions, toxicity, and metabolic activity of the essential trace elements iron, zinc, and copper in retinal physiology and disease. In addition, Smart et al. have published a splendid review on the modulation by zinc of inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptor ion channels. Source

Jaffe L.F.,The Marine Biological Laboratory
Cell Calcium | Year: 2010

Calcium waves are propagated in five main speed ranges which cover a billion-fold range of speeds. We define the fast speed range as 3-30μm/s after correction to a standard temperature of 20°C. Only waves which are not fertilization waves are considered here. 181 such cases are listed here. These are through organisms in all major taxa from cyanobacteria through mammals including human beings except for those through other bacteria, higher plants and fungi. Nearly two-thirds of these speeds lie between 12 and 24μm/s. We argue that their common mechanism in eukaryotes is a reaction-diffusion one involving calcium-induced calcium release, in which calcium waves are propagated along the endoplasmic reticulum. We propose that the gliding movements of some cyanobacteria are driven by fast calcium waves which are propagated along their plasma membranes. Fast calcium waves may drive materials to one end of developing embryos by cellular peristalsis, help coordinate complex cell movements during development and underlie brain injury waves. Moreover, we continue to argue that such waves greatly increase the likelihood that chronic injuries will initiate tumors and cancers before genetic damage occurs. Finally we propose numerous further studies. © 2010. Source

Ripps H.,Illinois College | Ripps H.,The Marine Biological Laboratory | Shen W.,Florida Atlantic University
Molecular Vision | Year: 2012

Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. © 2012 Molecular Vision. Source

Shanklin D.R.,The Marine Biological Laboratory | Shanklin D.R.,University of Chicago
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2012

Oxygen uptake by the pulmonary circulation is a chemical reaction. The physicochemical attributes of oxygen are critical when studying pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Extent of lung injury depends on the percentage of oxygen in an oxygen-nitrogen mix in polybaric circumstances (Shanklin, 1969). Further change in extent of lesion follows when other gases are used in the inhalant mix instead of nitrogen (Shanklin and Lester, 1972), with oxygen at 21-100% of the mix. Comparative subatmospheric oxygen levels down to 3% in hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon, or sulfur hexafluoride, were run with and without ventilatory distress by the Farber (1937) model, bilateral cervical vagotomy (BCV). This yielded coherent results indicating a need to consider molecular characteristics at the atomic level. Molecular mass and size, gas viscosity, and thermal conductivity yielded no obvious correlates to lung injury. Saturation of the outer electron shells of the diluents fit the empiric data, prospectively an interaction between oxygen and nitrogen from their electronegativity and closely approximate molecular mass, size, and shape. The lesion is essentially eliminated at 7% oxygen in nitrogen. At 3% oxygen, the least lesion is found with N2, H2, and SF6, all gases with incomplete outer electron shells, allowing for transient, possibly polarized, covalent bonding with oxygen as the significant minority component in the mix. Argon and helium do not interfere with oxygen. With 3% oxygen in argon without BCV, the experiments ran so long (>70hours) they were terminated once the point had been made. 3% oxygen in argon after BCV yielded a mean survival more than twice that of BCV in air, indicating a remarkable degree of nitrogen interference with oxygen in the respiratory medium of terrestrial animal life. Argon displayed other advantages for the lung compared to nitrogen. Hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen are diatomic molecules, a feature which does relate to the extent of lung injury, but only oxygen is paramagnetic. Magnetic effects on lesion formation were tested: [1] with ventilatory distress induced in newborn rabbits, and [2] in young adult female white mice exposed to 100% oxygen without added mechanical distress. A noninvasive model for ventilatory distress, thoracic restraint (TR), with longer mean survivals of 40-50. hours, was employed rather than the Farber model. Parallel runs with TR, one subset receiving 100% oxygen in a plastic chamber resting on six strong ring magnets with measured fields up to +. 1200 gauss, the other plain 100% oxygen, were performed. Both subsets developed moderate metabolic acidosis with average weight losses circa 25%, but over different time courses, 82.89 ± 4.91. hours in magnetized oxygen, 55.4% longer than the 53.34 ± 9.82. hours in plain oxygen (p< 0.001). The longer survival in magnetized oxygen meant extensive lung injury (99.57 ± 0.42% pleural surface, versus 83.86 ± 14.03%), but the rate of lesion formation was 30.89% faster in plain oxygen (1.5722% per hour) than in magnetized oxygen (1.2012% per hour), a difference significant at p< 0.001.The effect of oxygen without mechanical ventilatory distress was examined in female adult white mice exposed to oxygen or magnetized oxygen. Similar survivals and weight losses were achieved. The rate of lung lesion formation was different, 1.2617% per hour in plain oxygen, 46.13% faster than 0.8634% per hour in magnetized oxygen. A variable magnetic field, with animals moving and breathing in chambers flooded with oxygen, has both systemic and pulmonary effects which alter the rate of lesion formation due to oxygen toxicity. Paramagnetic oxygen in a magnetic field influences the effect of oxygen toxicity on the lung but at these strengths of field it does not overcome significant mechanical disturbance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

The Marine Biological Laboratory | Date: 2014-05-12

Embodiments of various aspects described herein relate to methods and systems for detecting exocytosis or endocytosis of a target molecule from or into a population of cells, in part based on impedance analysis of the population of cells after they are exposed to an alternating current applied at two or more frequencies or to a repetitive voltage waveform. In some embodiments, the methods and systems described herein can be used for assessing viability and/or potency of the population of cells, and/or identifying a secretagogue for the target molecule released from the population of cells.

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