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Danilova N.,University of California at Los Angeles | Gazda H.T.,The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research | Gazda H.T.,Harvard University | Gazda H.T.,Cambridge Broad Institute
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2015

Defects inribosome biogenesisare associated with a group of diseases called the ribosomopathies, ofwhich Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is the most studied. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). RPs and multiple other factors are necessary for the processing of pre-rRNA, the assembly of ribosomal subunits, their export to the cytoplasm and for the final assembly of subunits into a ribosome. Haploinsufficiency of certain RPs causes DBA, whereas mutations in other factors cause various other ribosomopathies. Despite the general nature of their underlying defects, the clinical manifestations of ribosomopathies differ. In DBA, for example, red blood cell pathology is especially evident. In addition, individuals with DBA often have malformations of limbs, the face and various organs, and also have an increased risk of cancer. Common features sharedamong humanDBAand animalmodels haveemerged, such as small body size, eye defects, duplication or overgrowth of ectoderm-derived structures, and hematopoietic defects. Phenotypes of ribosomopathies are mediated both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The current challenge is to identify differences in response to ribosomal stress that lead to specific tissue defects in various ribosomopathies. Here, we review recent findings in this field, with a particular focus on animal models, and discuss how, in some cases, the different phenotypes of ribosomopathies might arise fromdifferences in the spatiotemporal expression of the affected genes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Motohashi N.,Program in Genomics | Alexander M.S.,Program in Genomics | Shimizu-Motohashi Y.,Program in Genomics | Myers J.A.,Program in Genomics | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2013

Skeletal muscle possesses a strong ability to regenerate following injury, a fact that has been largely attributed to satellite cells. Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells located beneath the basal lamina of the myofiber, and are the principal cellular source of growth and regeneration in skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in modulating several cellular processes by targeting multiple mRNAs that comprise a single or multiple signaling pathway. Several miRNAs have been shown to regulate satellite cell activity, such as miRNA-489, which functions to maintain satellite cells in a quiescent state. Although muscle-specific miRNAs have been identified, many of the molecular mechanisms that regulate myogenesis that are regulated by miRNAs still remain unknown. In this study, we have shown that miR-128a is highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and increases during myoblast differentiation. MiR-128a was found to regulate the target genes involved in insulin signaling, which include Insr (insulin receptor), Irs1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and Pik3r1 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases regulatory 1) at both the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of miR-128a in myoblasts inhibited cell proliferation by targeting IRS1. By contrast, inhibition of miR-128a induced myotube maturation and myofiber hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our results demonstrate that miR-128a expression levels are negatively controlled by tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a). TNF-a promoted myoblast proliferation and myotube hypertrophy by facilitating IRS1/Akt signaling via a direct decrease of miR-128a expression in both myoblasts and myotubes. In summary, we demonstrate that miR-128a regulates myoblast proliferation and myotube hypertrophy, and provides a novel mechanism through which IRS1-dependent insulin signaling is regulated in skeletal muscle. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Weinacht K.G.,Childrens Hospital Boston | Brauer P.M.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | Felgentreff K.,Childrens Hospital Boston | Devine A.,Childrens Hospital Boston | And 7 more authors.
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2012

The advent of reprogramming technology has greatly advanced the field of stem cell biology and nurtured our hope to create patient specific renewable stem cell sources. While the number of reports of disease specific induced pluripotent stem cells is continuously rising, the field becomes increasingly more aware that induced pluripotent stem cells are not as similar to embryonic stem cells as initially assumed. Our state of the art understanding of human induced pluripotent stem cells, their capacity, their limitations and their promise as it pertains to the study and treatment of primary immunodeficiencies, is the content of this review. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sponzilli I.,Harvard University | Sponzilli I.,University of Parma | Notarangelo L.D.,Harvard University | Notarangelo L.D.,The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research
Acta Biomedica | Year: 2011

Primary immune deficiency diseases (PID) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect distinct components of the innate and adaptive immune system, such as neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, complement proteins, natural killer cells, as well as T and B lymphocytes. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a group of disorders characterized by increased susceptibility to severe infections and early death.The diagnosis of SCID is supported by the demonstration of low absolute lymphocyte count and T cell lymphopenia (variably associated with numerical defects of B and NK cells). In the last two decades, advances in the characterization of the molecular pathophysiology of SCID, have permitted the development of novel diagnostic assays based on analysis of the expression of the disease-associated proteins and mutation analysis.More recently, pilot newborn screening programs for the identification of infants with SCID have been initiated in the United States. Prompt and aggressive treatment of infections, antimicrobial prophylaxis (in particular against Pneumocystis jiroveci) and regular administration of immunoglobulins are essential to reduce the risk of early death. However, survival ultimately depends on reconstitution of immune function, that is usually achieved by means of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Gene therapy and enzyme replacement therapy have also been used successfully is selected forms of SCID. Here we review the molecular and cellular pathophysiology and the mainstay of treatment of SCID. © Mattioli 1885. Source

Notarangelo L.D.,The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

In the last years, advances in molecular genetics and immunology have resulted in the identification of a growing number of genes causing primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) in human subjects and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of PIDs has also facilitated the development of novel diagnostic assays based on analysis of the expression of the protein encoded by the PID-specific gene. Pilot newborn screening programs for the identification of infants with severe combined immunodeficiency have been initiated. Finally, significant advances have been made in the treatment of PIDs based on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulins, hematopoietic cell transplantation from unrelated donors and cord blood, and gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs, with special attention to recent advances in the field. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

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