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Preethi J.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Farzana M.H.,The Madura College | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2017

Investigations were made in order to evaluate the photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide impregnated chitosan beads (ZCB) and chitosan/zinc oxide composite (CZC) under UV light irradiation. The as-synthesized chitosan modified zinc oxide materials were characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDAX and EPR studies. Photocatalytic experiments were conducted to optimize various parameters viz., irradiation time, the amount of catalyst, pH, concentration of H2O2, light intensity, co-ions, initial concentration of Cr(VI) under UV irradiation. The maximum reduction percentage of Cr(VI) using ZCB and CZC under UV light was obtained at 60min of irradiation time. CZC possesses higher percentage of 99.8% Cr(VI) reduction compared to ZCB which in turn higher than ZnO under UV light irradiation. The kinetics of photo-reduction of Cr(VI) is explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The kinetic studies demonstrated that the photocatalytic reactions followed the pseudo-first-order model. The reusability of as-synthesized ZCB and CZC was assessed. The Cr(VI) reduction by ZCB and CZC under UV light is governed by adsorption coupled photocatalytic reduction. The suitability of ZCB and CZC was checked by employing these catalysts with the effluent taken from a nearby industrial area using photocatalytic method. © 2017.


Sasikumar S.,The Madura College | Saravanan R.,The Madura College
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2017

(1 − x)(Na1−yKy)NbO3-xBaTiO3 (abbreviated as NKN-BT, x = 0.1, 0.2; y = 0.01, 0.05) ceramics were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis in combination with the profile refinement method was employed for quantitative phase analysis and structural refinement. The x-ray diffraction study shows that phase transition occurs from tetragonal to distorted cubic with the compositions between x = 0.1 and x = 0.2. The spatial arrangements of the electron distribution and bonding nature of the samples have been analyzed through the maximum entropy method. The optical band gap energy of the prepared solid solutions has been determined using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The optical band gap energy of the solid solutions decreases with the increase in BaTiO3 content. The elemental composition of these ceramics has been studied using energy dispersive x-ray analysis and the microstructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33) measurement of the ceramics shows the enhancement of piezoelectric properties in the tetragonal phase. The maximum value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d33) obtained for the solid solution is 120 pC/N. With increasing BaTiO3 content in the solid solutions, the ferroelectric behavior weakens. © 2017 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society


Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana kumar G.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

This paper overviews around 125 research article's fundamentals, methods of preparation of electrode catalysts, characterization techniques, optimized parameters, electrode stability and electrode catalytic activities for the microbial fuel cell applications. Previously, platinum-based electrode catalysts have been used as both anode and cathode electrode catalysts in MFC analysis, but the available source is limited and high cost. Recently, nanocomposite (Metal, carbon, metal oxides and conducting polymer) based electrode catalysts were assembled with MFC for the usage of wastewater treatment and green energy power production. These kinds of composites were high electrode-surface area, environment friendly, commercially available, alternative Pt electrode and inexpensive. Therefore, this review is fully focused on the electrocatalytic activity of most conversion energy efficiency in MFC power production. In this article overviews, the current-state-of-art is highlighted, most probably develop a new strategy of scientific analysis and the improvement of power performance for enhancing the MFC catalytic activities. © 2015 The Authors.


Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana kumar G.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

A novel based electrochemically active various electrodes (Carbon nanotube, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites) materials has been overviewed for the development of supercapacitor applications. Different kinds of morphological (Flowers, nano fibers, nano wires, nano rod and nanoporous) based electrodes were reported reasonable specific capacitance, specific power, specific energy and excellent cyclic stability etc. The necessity of energy storage devices extremely focused on the following parameters such as cost-effective, cycle life and safety usage. In spite of that, the need of supercapacitors achievements in higher specific capacitance and long-durability of the electrochemical reaction have been carried out. In this article, we studied the different choice of electrode materials, capacitors classifications, morphological structure, BET surface and electrochemical optimization of the overall supercapacitors performance. Recently, most of the researchers have significantly addressed nanocomposite electrodes, because of, due to increase the BET surface area, narrow sized distribution and improve their supercapacitors (Specific capacitance, specific powers, specific energy and cyclic durability) parameters. The above discussed over all surveys literatures of electrochemical parameters, which can be used as emerging technologies for supercapacitors. © 2015 The Authors.


Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana Kumar G.P.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has primary role in energy devices including green energy, light weight and low-cost alternative electrode materials. Recently, number of efforts was made to synthesis highly active electrode catalyst for energy harvesting and energy demands. The electrode catalysts have attracted much attention due to their physical and chemical properties. In this review, we mainly focused on different preparation methods developed for the production of different kinds of electrode materials, which could apply for ORR in fuel cell applications. The electrode materials such as nanoparticles, bimetallic, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites have been reviewed in this article. Further developments in the fuel cell process will improve the pioneering electrode catalysis to contribute our future renewable some of energy storage devices. © 2015 The Authors.


Mangaiyarkkarasi J.,NMSSVN College | Saravanan R.,The Madura College
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2016

In this work, we report the influences of Ce doping on structural, morphological, optical and charge derived properties of BaTi1−xCexO3 (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 & 0.08) ceramic synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction method. This ceramic has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV–visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Lattice parameters were determined through the profile refinement technique using PXRD data. Charge density redistribution and bonding nature of the grown systems are analyzed by maximum entropy method (MEM). Incorporation of rare earth ion Ce into the BaTiO3 lattice enhances the ionic nature between Ba and O ions and decreases the ionic nature between Ti and O ions, revealed from the qualitative and quantitative analysis by MEM. Optical band gap values are estimated for the prepared samples from UV–Vis data. Formation of aggregated particles with low porosity is observed from SEM micrographs. The chemical compositions of the prepared samples are further confirmed by EDS spectral analysis. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Loghambal S.,The Madura College | Rajendran L.,The Madura College
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2011

The theoretical analysis of the steady-state amperometric oxidase enzyme-membrane electrode is developed. The model is based on diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. We employ the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to solve the system of coupled non-linear diffusion equations for the steady-state condition. Simple and approximate polynomial expressions of concentration of oxygen (mediator), substrate and flux are derived for all possible values of parameters φ (Theiele modulus), BO (normalized surface concentration of mediator), and BS (normalized surface concentration of substrate). Furthermore, in this work the numerical solution of the problem is also reported using SCILAB program. The analytical results are compared with the numerical results and found to be in good agreement. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Meena A.,The Madura College | Rajendran L.,The Madura College
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

A mathematical model of amperometric and potentiometric biosensor is developed. The model is based on system of reaction-diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. This paper presents an approximate analytical method (He's Homotopy perturbation method) to solve the non-linear differential equations that describe the diffusion coupled with a Michaelis-Menten kinetics law. Approximate analytical expressions for substrate concentration, product concentration and corresponding current response have been derived for all values of parameter σ using perturbation method. These results are compared with available limiting case results and are found to be in good agreement. The obtained results are valid for the whole solution domain. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | Kannan P.,The Madura College
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for pearl millet using shoot apex explants, conferring resistance to leaf blast disease by inserting a rice chitinase (chil 1) gene. Transgenic pearl millet lines (Pennisetum typhoides (L.) R.Br.) expressing rice chitinase gene with high levels of resistance to rust pathogen, Puccinia penniseti, were developed using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. The emryogenic calli derived from shoot apex of C09 cultivar were transformed with LBA4404 (pSBl/pKAN-Rchitl.l) that harboured rice chitinase gene (chitll) under the control of maize ubiquitin (Ubi 1) promoter intron. Transgene (chit 11) in the middle of the T-DNA as used as probe in southern analysis. Out of six independent T0 plants tested for southern, three had single copy T-DNA insertions and three had two copies T-DNA insertions. All the six T0 plants carried complete T-DNA with the chitinase transgene. A segregation ratio of 3:1, reflecting T-DNA insertion at a single locus, was observed in the progeny of all the T0 plants which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Western blot analysis of T1plants revealed constitutive expression of chitinase at high levels. Bioassays of T1plants indicated enhanced resistance to the rust pathogen, P. penniseti, in comparison to control plants. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of pearl millet and first transgenic pearl millet with fungal resistance. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of pearl millet in the future. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Saravanan R.,The Madura College | Mangaiyarkkarasi J.,NMSSVN College
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2016

The Ba1−xSrxTiO3 perovskites (abbreviated as BST, x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) have been synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction technique. The influences of Sr doping on the morphology, electron density distribution and optical properties at the lattice sites of BaTiO3 have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. With the increase in Sr content, the lattice parameter, cell volume, density and the grain sizes are found to be reduced. The incorporation of Sr content into the BaTiO3 lattice decreases the ionic nature of the bonding between Ti and O ions and increases ionic nature between Ba and O ions and the energy gap measurements indicate the reduction in insulating property of the grown samples. The stoichiometry of the samples was further confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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