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Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana kumar G.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

This paper overviews around 125 research article's fundamentals, methods of preparation of electrode catalysts, characterization techniques, optimized parameters, electrode stability and electrode catalytic activities for the microbial fuel cell applications. Previously, platinum-based electrode catalysts have been used as both anode and cathode electrode catalysts in MFC analysis, but the available source is limited and high cost. Recently, nanocomposite (Metal, carbon, metal oxides and conducting polymer) based electrode catalysts were assembled with MFC for the usage of wastewater treatment and green energy power production. These kinds of composites were high electrode-surface area, environment friendly, commercially available, alternative Pt electrode and inexpensive. Therefore, this review is fully focused on the electrocatalytic activity of most conversion energy efficiency in MFC power production. In this article overviews, the current-state-of-art is highlighted, most probably develop a new strategy of scientific analysis and the improvement of power performance for enhancing the MFC catalytic activities. © 2015 The Authors.


Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

The most commonly used various electrode materials such as carbon fiber, multi-walled carbon nanotube, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites for the improvement of electrode surface area, reduced the size, superior electrochemical performance and highly reversible cyclic stability in lithium ion batteries (LIB). Significantly, we have discussed about the analytical characterization techniques, morphological size (shape), choice of solvent electrolyte and temperature effects respectively. Furthermore, in order to discuss various electrochemical techniques like cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques have been used for testing electrochemical reactions and more in detailed studies of the reported discharged specific capacities and their reversible cyclic stability. The most important thing is previous and the recent reported novel based electrode materials of LIB studies for the execution of the future requirements of hybrid-vehicles and for electronic storage device applications.


Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana kumar G.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

A novel based electrochemically active various electrodes (Carbon nanotube, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites) materials has been overviewed for the development of supercapacitor applications. Different kinds of morphological (Flowers, nano fibers, nano wires, nano rod and nanoporous) based electrodes were reported reasonable specific capacitance, specific power, specific energy and excellent cyclic stability etc. The necessity of energy storage devices extremely focused on the following parameters such as cost-effective, cycle life and safety usage. In spite of that, the need of supercapacitors achievements in higher specific capacitance and long-durability of the electrochemical reaction have been carried out. In this article, we studied the different choice of electrode materials, capacitors classifications, morphological structure, BET surface and electrochemical optimization of the overall supercapacitors performance. Recently, most of the researchers have significantly addressed nanocomposite electrodes, because of, due to increase the BET surface area, narrow sized distribution and improve their supercapacitors (Specific capacitance, specific powers, specific energy and cyclic durability) parameters. The above discussed over all surveys literatures of electrochemical parameters, which can be used as emerging technologies for supercapacitors. © 2015 The Authors.


Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana Kumar G.P.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2015

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has primary role in energy devices including green energy, light weight and low-cost alternative electrode materials. Recently, number of efforts was made to synthesis highly active electrode catalyst for energy harvesting and energy demands. The electrode catalysts have attracted much attention due to their physical and chemical properties. In this review, we mainly focused on different preparation methods developed for the production of different kinds of electrode materials, which could apply for ORR in fuel cell applications. The electrode materials such as nanoparticles, bimetallic, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites have been reviewed in this article. Further developments in the fuel cell process will improve the pioneering electrode catalysis to contribute our future renewable some of energy storage devices. © 2015 The Authors.


Mangaiyarkkarasi J.,NMSSVN College | Saravanan R.,The Madura College
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2016

In this work, we report the influences of Ce doping on structural, morphological, optical and charge derived properties of BaTi1−xCexO3 (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 & 0.08) ceramic synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction method. This ceramic has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV–visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Lattice parameters were determined through the profile refinement technique using PXRD data. Charge density redistribution and bonding nature of the grown systems are analyzed by maximum entropy method (MEM). Incorporation of rare earth ion Ce into the BaTiO3 lattice enhances the ionic nature between Ba and O ions and decreases the ionic nature between Ti and O ions, revealed from the qualitative and quantitative analysis by MEM. Optical band gap values are estimated for the prepared samples from UV–Vis data. Formation of aggregated particles with low porosity is observed from SEM micrographs. The chemical compositions of the prepared samples are further confirmed by EDS spectral analysis. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Loghambal S.,The Madura College | Rajendran L.,The Madura College
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2011

The theoretical analysis of the steady-state amperometric oxidase enzyme-membrane electrode is developed. The model is based on diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. We employ the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to solve the system of coupled non-linear diffusion equations for the steady-state condition. Simple and approximate polynomial expressions of concentration of oxygen (mediator), substrate and flux are derived for all possible values of parameters φ (Theiele modulus), BO (normalized surface concentration of mediator), and BS (normalized surface concentration of substrate). Furthermore, in this work the numerical solution of the problem is also reported using SCILAB program. The analytical results are compared with the numerical results and found to be in good agreement. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Meena A.,The Madura College | Rajendran L.,The Madura College
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

A mathematical model of amperometric and potentiometric biosensor is developed. The model is based on system of reaction-diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. This paper presents an approximate analytical method (He's Homotopy perturbation method) to solve the non-linear differential equations that describe the diffusion coupled with a Michaelis-Menten kinetics law. Approximate analytical expressions for substrate concentration, product concentration and corresponding current response have been derived for all values of parameter σ using perturbation method. These results are compared with available limiting case results and are found to be in good agreement. The obtained results are valid for the whole solution domain. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kullayiswamy K.R.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University | Sandhyarani S.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University | Karuppusamy S.,The Madura College
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Ceropegia pullaiahii Kullayiswamy, Sandhyarani et Karuppusamy sp. nov. (Apocynaceae) is described from open dry deciduous forest of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Its tubers are eaten by the local people. It is similar to C. mahabalei Hemadri et Ansari but differs in its twining habit and 3-flowered cyme. © 2013 The Authors. Nordic Journal of Botany © 2013 Nordic Society Oikos.


Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | Kannan P.,The Madura College
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for pearl millet using shoot apex explants, conferring resistance to leaf blast disease by inserting a rice chitinase (chil 1) gene. Transgenic pearl millet lines (Pennisetum typhoides (L.) R.Br.) expressing rice chitinase gene with high levels of resistance to rust pathogen, Puccinia penniseti, were developed using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. The emryogenic calli derived from shoot apex of C09 cultivar were transformed with LBA4404 (pSBl/pKAN-Rchitl.l) that harboured rice chitinase gene (chitll) under the control of maize ubiquitin (Ubi 1) promoter intron. Transgene (chit 11) in the middle of the T-DNA as used as probe in southern analysis. Out of six independent T0 plants tested for southern, three had single copy T-DNA insertions and three had two copies T-DNA insertions. All the six T0 plants carried complete T-DNA with the chitinase transgene. A segregation ratio of 3:1, reflecting T-DNA insertion at a single locus, was observed in the progeny of all the T0 plants which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Western blot analysis of T1plants revealed constitutive expression of chitinase at high levels. Bioassays of T1plants indicated enhanced resistance to the rust pathogen, P. penniseti, in comparison to control plants. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of pearl millet and first transgenic pearl millet with fungal resistance. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of pearl millet in the future. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Saravanan R.,The Madura College | Mangaiyarkkarasi J.,NMSSVN College
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2016

The Ba1−xSrxTiO3 perovskites (abbreviated as BST, x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) have been synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction technique. The influences of Sr doping on the morphology, electron density distribution and optical properties at the lattice sites of BaTiO3 have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. With the increase in Sr content, the lattice parameter, cell volume, density and the grain sizes are found to be reduced. The incorporation of Sr content into the BaTiO3 lattice decreases the ionic nature of the bonding between Ti and O ions and increases ionic nature between Ba and O ions and the energy gap measurements indicate the reduction in insulating property of the grown samples. The stoichiometry of the samples was further confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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