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Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana kumar G.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science

This paper overviews around 125 research article's fundamentals, methods of preparation of electrode catalysts, characterization techniques, optimized parameters, electrode stability and electrode catalytic activities for the microbial fuel cell applications. Previously, platinum-based electrode catalysts have been used as both anode and cathode electrode catalysts in MFC analysis, but the available source is limited and high cost. Recently, nanocomposite (Metal, carbon, metal oxides and conducting polymer) based electrode catalysts were assembled with MFC for the usage of wastewater treatment and green energy power production. These kinds of composites were high electrode-surface area, environment friendly, commercially available, alternative Pt electrode and inexpensive. Therefore, this review is fully focused on the electrocatalytic activity of most conversion energy efficiency in MFC power production. In this article overviews, the current-state-of-art is highlighted, most probably develop a new strategy of scientific analysis and the improvement of power performance for enhancing the MFC catalytic activities. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana kumar G.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science

A novel based electrochemically active various electrodes (Carbon nanotube, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites) materials has been overviewed for the development of supercapacitor applications. Different kinds of morphological (Flowers, nano fibers, nano wires, nano rod and nanoporous) based electrodes were reported reasonable specific capacitance, specific power, specific energy and excellent cyclic stability etc. The necessity of energy storage devices extremely focused on the following parameters such as cost-effective, cycle life and safety usage. In spite of that, the need of supercapacitors achievements in higher specific capacitance and long-durability of the electrochemical reaction have been carried out. In this article, we studied the different choice of electrode materials, capacitors classifications, morphological structure, BET surface and electrochemical optimization of the overall supercapacitors performance. Recently, most of the researchers have significantly addressed nanocomposite electrodes, because of, due to increase the BET surface area, narrow sized distribution and improve their supercapacitors (Specific capacitance, specific powers, specific energy and cyclic durability) parameters. The above discussed over all surveys literatures of electrochemical parameters, which can be used as emerging technologies for supercapacitors. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology | Gnana Kumar G.P.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has primary role in energy devices including green energy, light weight and low-cost alternative electrode materials. Recently, number of efforts was made to synthesis highly active electrode catalyst for energy harvesting and energy demands. The electrode catalysts have attracted much attention due to their physical and chemical properties. In this review, we mainly focused on different preparation methods developed for the production of different kinds of electrode materials, which could apply for ORR in fuel cell applications. The electrode materials such as nanoparticles, bimetallic, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites have been reviewed in this article. Further developments in the fuel cell process will improve the pioneering electrode catalysis to contribute our future renewable some of energy storage devices. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Ramachandran R.,The Madura College | Chen S.-M.,National Taipei University of Technology
International Journal of Electrochemical Science

The most commonly used various electrode materials such as carbon fiber, multi-walled carbon nanotube, metal oxides, conducting polymers and nanocomposites for the improvement of electrode surface area, reduced the size, superior electrochemical performance and highly reversible cyclic stability in lithium ion batteries (LIB). Significantly, we have discussed about the analytical characterization techniques, morphological size (shape), choice of solvent electrolyte and temperature effects respectively. Furthermore, in order to discuss various electrochemical techniques like cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques have been used for testing electrochemical reactions and more in detailed studies of the reported discharged specific capacities and their reversible cyclic stability. The most important thing is previous and the recent reported novel based electrode materials of LIB studies for the execution of the future requirements of hybrid-vehicles and for electronic storage device applications. Source

Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | Kannan P.,The Madura College
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences

A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for pearl millet using shoot apex explants, conferring resistance to leaf blast disease by inserting a rice chitinase (chil 1) gene. Transgenic pearl millet lines (Pennisetum typhoides (L.) R.Br.) expressing rice chitinase gene with high levels of resistance to rust pathogen, Puccinia penniseti, were developed using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. The emryogenic calli derived from shoot apex of C09 cultivar were transformed with LBA4404 (pSBl/pKAN-Rchitl.l) that harboured rice chitinase gene (chitll) under the control of maize ubiquitin (Ubi 1) promoter intron. Transgene (chit 11) in the middle of the T-DNA as used as probe in southern analysis. Out of six independent T0 plants tested for southern, three had single copy T-DNA insertions and three had two copies T-DNA insertions. All the six T0 plants carried complete T-DNA with the chitinase transgene. A segregation ratio of 3:1, reflecting T-DNA insertion at a single locus, was observed in the progeny of all the T0 plants which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Western blot analysis of T1plants revealed constitutive expression of chitinase at high levels. Bioassays of T1plants indicated enhanced resistance to the rust pathogen, P. penniseti, in comparison to control plants. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of pearl millet and first transgenic pearl millet with fungal resistance. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of pearl millet in the future. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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