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Zhang R.X.,University of Toronto | Cai P.,University of Toronto | Zhang T.,University of Toronto | Chen K.,University of Toronto | And 6 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2016

Effective combination chemotherapy requires the delivery of drugs of synergism to tumor sites while sparing normal tissues. Herein we investigated whether coencapsulation of doxorubicin and mitomycin C within polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (DMPLN) achieved this goal via ratiometric drugs in an orthotopic murine breast tumor model with nanocarrier-modified biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, local bioavailability and toxicity. Fluorescence imaging revealed quickened and extended tumor uptake but reduced cardiac accumulation of DMPLN. Quantitative drug analysis demonstrated prolonged systemic circulation, increased tumor accumulation and sustained synergistic ratios of doxorubicin and mitomycin C delivered by DMPLN over 24 h. Higher levels of tumor cell apoptosis and reduced organ toxicity were obtained with DMPLN compared to free drug cocktails. DMPLN released DOX in tumors more efficiently than that from liposomal doxorubicin, as evidenced by a higher extent of the metabolite, doxorubicinol. These findings substantiate the importance of rational design of nanoparticles for synergistic drug combination therapy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | The Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2015

The position and function of the Golgi apparatus are tightly coupled with the microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) that play important roles in cell growth and polarity. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the single Golgi apparatus is adjacent to a novel, bilobed structure located at the proximal base of the flagellum, near to the basal body that nucleates the flagellar axoneme. The duplication and segregation of the bilobed structure are tightly coupled to the duplication and segregation of Golgi, ER exit site, basal bodies, and flagellum, suggesting a role of this unique structure in the precise positioning, biogenesis, and inheritance of these single-copied structures during the cell cycle of procyclic T. brucei. Here, we describe in details two different isolation and proteomic methods to characterize the protein components present on or associated with the bilobed structure, which allow further understanding of its function and association with other membranous and cytoskeletal organelles in the parasite.

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