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The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university specialised in social science located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and first issued degrees to its students in 1902. Despite its name, LSE conducts teaching and research across a range of social science, as well as in mathematics, statistics, media, philosophy and history.LSE is located in Westminster, central London, near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn. The area is historically known as Clare Market. It has around 9,500 full-time students and just over 3,000 staff and had a total income of £263.2 million in 2012/13, of which £23.7 million was from research grants. The School is organised into 24 academic departments and 19 research centres. LSE's library, the British Library of Political and Economic Science, contains over 4 million print volumes, 60,000 online journals and 29,000 electronic books. The Digital Library contains digitised material from LSE Library collections and also born-digital material that has been collected and preserved in digital formats.LSE is a global leading social science dedicated institution and is considered one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Among 12 specific subjects evaluated, QS World University Rankings has put LSE as a top ten in the world in eight, a top three in five of them and second within the macro discipline of social science and management. In the UK, the School is often ranked 3rd in domestic ranking tables. According to the The Research Excellence Framework 2014, however, LSE has "the highest proportion of "world-leading" research among UK universities".The School has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, philosophy, history, business, literature, media and politics. To date, there have been 16 Nobel Prize winners amongst its alumni and current and former staff, at least 37 world leaders, seven Pulitzer Prize winners and fellows of the British Academy. Out of European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of dollar billionaires. LSE is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, the European University Association, the G5, the Global Alliance in Management Education, the Russell Group and Universities UK. It is sometimes described as forming part of the 'golden triangle' of British universities. Wikipedia.

Forsyth T.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

Community-based adaptation (CBA) is a form of adaptation that aims to reduce the risks of climate change to the world's poorest people by involving them in the practices and planning of adaptation. It adds to current approaches to adaptation by emphasizing the social, political, and economic drivers of vulnerability, and by highlighting the needs of vulnerable people. Critics, however, ask how lessons from local adaptive responses can be 'upscaled' to wider spatial scales and risks; whether CBA can represent local people fairly; and if successful CBA can be assessed. This article summarizes these debates, and uses these questions to present a framework for advancing CBA more fully within formal policy processes. The article argues that CBA should not be seen as an overly localist approach to risk assessment, but instead forms part of a trend of linking international development and climate change policies. This trend seeks to explain the risks posed by climate change more holistically within development contexts, and aims to increase the range and usefulness of adaptation options. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Calel R.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

The global carbon trade has in a short space of time grown into a market worth over $175 billion a year. The history of carbon markets is a great political success story, and today they form an integral part of international climate change policy. Yet we only have a very limited understanding of how well these markets work in practice. Studying the incoming evidence and piecing it together with past emissions trading experiences can teach us a lot about how carbon markets work, and how they can fail. This article reviews the history of emissions trading and the rise of carbon markets as a basis for better understanding what is happening now. Viewing these markets in a historical light reveals that many of the current problems have precedent, and that we are perhaps not learning enough from past experiences. If carbon market policies were more geared toward systematic evaluation, and more open to incorporating past lessons into new policy, carbon markets would stand a greater chance of helping achieve the transition to a low-carbon economy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Fox S.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Population and Development Review | Year: 2012

Urbanization has traditionally been understood as a byproduct of economic development, but this explanatory framework fails to account for the phenomenon of "urbanization without growth" observed in sub-Saharan Africa throughout the 1980s and 1990s. In light of this apparent anomaly, I argue that urbanization is better understood as a global historical process driven by population dynamics associated with technological and institutional innovations that have substantially improved disease control and food security in urban settlements across the globe. These innovations first emerged in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and were subsequently diffused through colonialism, trade, and international development assistance. A range of qualitative and quantitative evidence is presented to demonstrate that this historically grounded theory of urbanization offers a more convincing explanation for the stylized facts of Africa's urban transition-and hence the process of world urbanization more broadly-than the traditional economic account. © 2012 The Population Council, Inc.

Shin H.B.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Antipode | Year: 2013

Wholesale clearance and eviction that typify China's urban development have often resulted in discontents among urban residents, giving rise to what critics refer to as property rights activism. This paper is an attempt to critically revisit the existing debates on the property rights activism in China. The paper refers to the perspective of the "right to the city" to examine whose rights count in China's urban development contexts and proposes a cross-class alliance that engages both migrants and local citizens. The alliance itself will have substantial political implications, overcoming the limited level of rights awareness that mainly rests on distributional justice in China. The discussions are supported by an analysis of empirical data from the author's field research in Guangzhou, which examines how local and non-local (migrant) residents view nail-households resisting demolition and forced eviction. © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Kanazawa S.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective: Recent studies conclude childhood intelligence has no direct effect on adult obesity net of education, but evolutionary psychological theories suggest otherwise. Design and Methods: A population (n = 17,419) of British babies has been followed since birth in 1958 in a prospectively longitudinal study. Childhood general intelligence is measured at 7, 11, and 16, and adult BMI and obesity are measured at 51. Results: Childhood general intelligence has a direct effect on adult BMI, obesity, and weight gain, net of education, earnings, mother's BMI, father's BMI, childhood social class, and sex. More intelligent children grow up to eat more healthy foods and exercise more frequently as adults. Conclusion: Childhood intelligence has a direct effect on adult obesity unmediated by education or earnings. General intelligence decreases BMI only in adulthood when individuals have complete control over what they eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

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