Ang C.W.,The Liverpool Cancer Research Center |
Nedjadi T.,The Liverpool Cancer Research Center |
Sheikh A.A.,The Liverpool Cancer Research Center |
Tweedle E.M.,The Liverpool Cancer Research Center |
And 14 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2010
S100A8 and its dimerization partner S100A9 are emerging as important chemokines in cancer. We previously reported that Smad4-negative pancreatic tumors contain fewer stromal S100A8-positive monocytes than their Smad4-positive counterparts. Here, we studied S100A8/A9-expressing cells in colorectal tumors relating their presence to clinicopathological parameters and Smad4 status. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (n = 12) revealed variation in the levels of S100A8 protein in colorectal cancer tumors, whereas immunohistochemical analysis (n = 313) showed variation in the numbers of stromal S100A8-positive and S100A9-positive cells. Loss of Smad4 expression was observed in 42/304 (14%) colorectal tumors and was associated with reduced numbers of S100A8-positive (P = 0.03) but not S100A9-positive stromal cells (P = 0.26). High S100A9 cell counts were associated with large tumor sizes (P = 0.0006) and poor differentiation grade (P = 0.036). However, neither S100A8 nor S100A9 cell counts predicted poor survival, except for patients with Smad4-negative tumors (P = 0.02). To address the impact of environmental S100A8/A9 chemokines on tumor cells, we examined the effects of exogenously added S100A8 and S100A9 proteins on cellular migration and proliferation of colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells. S100A8 and S100A9 enhanced migration and proliferation in Smad4-positive and Smad4-negative cancer cells. However, transient depletion of Smad4 resulted in loss of responsiveness to exogenous S100A8, but not S100A9. S100A8 and S100A9 activated Smad4 signaling as evidenced by phosphorylation of Smad2/3; blockade of the receptor for the advanced glycation end products inhibited this response. In conclusion, Smad4 loss alters the tumor's interaction with stromal myeloid cells and the tumor cells' response to the stromal chemokine, S100A8. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.