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Qiao L.,Ocean University of China | Qiao L.,The Key Laboratory of Sea Floor Resource and Exploration Technique | Zhong Y.,Ocean University of China | Zhong Y.,The Key Laboratory of Sea Floor Resource and Exploration Technique | And 8 more authors.
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2016

The Yellow River is well known for high concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is one of the most important SPM sources in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, China. The mechanisms of long-distance transport and deposition of the Yellow River sediment discharges are hot topics. Based on field observations in four different seasons of 2010–2011 and 15 numerical experiments, this work studied the seasonal sediment transportation and deposition in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Results show that the horizontal distribution of suspended sediment concentration in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is neither closely related to the Yellow River discharge in flood and dry seasons nor to the temperature and salinity distributions in winter and summer because most of the Yellow River-discharged sediments deposited near the river mouth. However, the winter northerly wind events, especially the winter storm events with high waves, are the major factors inducing the long-distance transport of the sediments from the Bohai Sea to the Yellow Sea. The net SPMs are transported to the Yellow Sea from the Bohai Sea in both winter and summer. The net SPM flux at the Bohai Strait is 14.0 Mt/year by the combined effects of tides, wind, and waves. The SPM is transported to the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea for the generation of the mud wedge off the peninsula. The northern part of the mud wedge is related to the southerly wind in summer, and the southeastern part resulted from the winter northerly wind, especially the strong wind. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Liu S.,Ocean University of China | Liu S.,The Key Laboratory of Sea Floor Resource and Exploration Technique | Qiao L.,Ocean University of China | Qiao L.,The Key Laboratory of Sea Floor Resource and Exploration Technique | And 8 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2015

An obvious shear front between the Taiwan Warm Current and the Zhe-Min (Zhejiang-Fujian) Coastal Current exists over the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) in winter. Although the cross-front spread of surface water in the ECS has been reported based on satellite images, the cross-front transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) has not been well studied. To reveal the detailed characteristics of SPM in vertical direction, in terms of different fractions, and to study its cross-front transport and mechanism, high-vertical resolution profiles of SPM concentrations observed by Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) and derived from water samples at various levels, together with salinity and temperature, were measured in February 2007, from 34 stations in the ECS. Results showed that volume concentration (VC) of SPM finer than 280.07. μm has a good correlation with mass concentration (MC), because coarser factions were thought to be biological components. The VC was then converted to the MC of different fractions at high resolution, by reducing the influence of biological sources. Both temperature and salinity data showed an obvious front along 50. m-isobath in the bottom layer, tilting seaward toward the surface layer. Within 50. m-isobath, the MC was higher than 2. mg/L in the surface layer and 10. mg/L in the bottom layer. The SPM could be transported across the front to the sea in the bottom layer, even to the east of 100. m-isobath, where the MC of SPM was less than 1. mg/L in the surface layer and 2. mg/L in the bottom layer. The SPM across the front was mainly silt fraction with some fraction of clay. An idealized numerical model was established. Numerical experiment results showed that bottom Ekman transport produced by the northerly wind in winter is the key factor controlling cross-front transport, and strong northerly wind is responsible for its expansion. This study helps our understanding of material exchange in the coastal and shelf seas. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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