Haddad M.R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Macri C.J.,George Washington University |
Holmes C.S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Goldstein D.S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
And 5 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2012
Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Early postnatal treatment with copper injections often improves clinical outcomes in affected infants. While Menkes disease newborns appear normal neurologically, analyses of fetal tissues including placenta indicate abnormal copper distribution and suggest a prenatal onset of the metal transport defect. In an affected fetus whose parents found termination unacceptable and who understood the associated risks, we began in utero copper histidine treatment at 31.5 weeks gestational age. Copper histidine (900. μg per dose) was administered directly to the fetus by intramuscular injection (fetal quadriceps or gluteus) under ultrasound guidance. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling enabled serial measurement of fetal copper and ceruloplasmin levels that were used to guide therapy over a four-week period. Fetal copper levels rose from 17. μg/dL prior to treatment to 45. μg/dL, and ceruloplasmin levels from 39. mg/L to 122. mg/L. After pulmonary maturity was confirmed biochemically, the baby was delivered at 35.5 weeks and daily copper histidine therapy (250. μg sc b.i.d.) was begun. Despite this very early intervention with copper, the infant showed hypotonia, developmental delay, and electroencephalographic abnormalities and died of respiratory failure at 5.5. months of age. The patient's ATP7A mutation (Q724H), which severely disrupted mRNA splicing, resulted in complete absence of ATP7A protein on Western blots. These investigations suggest that prenatally initiated copper replacement is inadequate to correct Menkes disease caused by severe loss-of-function mutations, and that postnatal ATP7A gene addition represents a rational approach in such circumstances. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Lewis R.B.,American Institute for Radiologic Pathology |
Lewis R.B.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences |
Mehrotra A.K.,The Joint Pathology Center |
Rodriguez P.,La Princesa University Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2014
Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. © RSNA, 2014.
PubMed | Georgetown University, University of Pennsylvania and The Joint Pathology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiologic clinics of North America | Year: 2016
Extranodal lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms that can affect every abdominal organ, with distinctive pathologic, radiologic, and clinical features. The radiologic findings are closely related to the underlying pathophysiology, and an understanding of these characteristic features should facilitate recognition of extranodal lymphoma and its various subtypes. Within the abdomen, lymphoma is found most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach. This article presents the findings in gastrointestinal tract lymphoma.
Auerbach A.,The Joint Pathology Center |
Aguilera N.S.,University of Virginia
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2015
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative processes occur in the head and neck ranging from reactive processes such as infectious mononucleosis to high grade malignant lymphomas. EBV is a ubiquitous herpes virus that infects more than 90% of adults worldwide, and is generally transferred though saliva. Primary infection can occur throughout life. EBV is the first virus linked to malignancies, both epithelial and lymphoid. Both T and B cell lymphomas can be associated with EBV and evidence shows that an individual's response to the acute EBV infection may be critical in the development of subsequent lymphoma. Currently, in situ hybridization for EBER is the most sensitive available test to detect EBV and should be routinely performed in lymphoproliferative lesions of the head and neck. Immunohistochemistry for EBV related proteins, such as LMP1, is much less sensitive than EBER in situ hybridization, but can help determine latency patterns of EBV infection. Although relatively rare, primary EBV-related lymphomas must be considered in the differential of atypical lymphoid proliferations in the head and neck. We present selected EBV-related disorders of the head and neck discussing etiology as well as differential diagnosis. © 2015.
PubMed | University of California at San Diego, Johns Hopkins University and The Joint Pathology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. This progression correlates with the severity of OSA-associated hypoxia. In mice with diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis leads to liver tissue hypoxia, which worsens with exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Emerging data has implicated hepatocyte cell signaling as an important factor in hepatic fibrogenesis. We hypothesized that hepatocyte specific knockout of the oxygen sensing subunit of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of the global response to hypoxia, may be protective against the development of liver fibrosis.Wild-type mice and mice with hepatocyte-specific HIF-1 knockout (Hif1a-/-hep) were fed a high trans-fat diet for six months, as a model of NAFLD. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius red stain and hydroxyproline assay. Liver enzymes, fasting insulin, and hepatic triglyceride content were also assessed. Hepatocytes were isolated from Hif1a-/-hep mice and wild-type controls and were exposed to sustained hypoxia (1% O2) or normoxia (16% O2) for 24 hours. The culture media was used to reconstitute type I collagen and the resulting matrices were examined for collagen cross-linking.Wild-type mice on a high trans-fat diet had 80% more hepatic collagen than Hif1a-/-hep mice (2.21 g collagen/mg liver tissue, versus 1.23 g collagen/mg liver tissue, p = 0.03), which was confirmed by Sirius red staining. Body weight, liver weight, mean hepatic triglyceride content, and fasting insulin were similar between groups. Culture media from wild-type mouse hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia allowed for avid collagen cross-linking, but very little cross-linking was seen when hepatocytes were exposed to normoxia, or when hepatocytes from Hif1a-/-hep mice were used in hypoxia or normoxia.Hepatocyte HIF-1 mediates an increase in liver fibrosis in a mouse model of NAFLD, perhaps due to liver tissue hypoxia in hepatic steatosis. HIF-1 is necessary for collagen cross-linking in an in vitro model of fibrosis.
Lattin Jr. G.E.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences |
Lattin Jr. G.E.,American Institute for Radiologic Pathology |
Sturgill E.D.,American Institute for Radiologic Pathology |
Sturgill E.D.,Naval Medical Center Portsmouth |
And 9 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2014
Advanced imaging often reveals adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. When adrenal disease is clinically suspected, cross-sectional imaging can be helpful in evaluating the etiology of the patient's symptoms. When adrenal disease is incidentally identified, what the clinician and patient really want to know is whether the findings are benign or malignant, as this ultimately will affect their next step in management. Using radiologic-pathologic correlation, we broadly classify common, uncommon, and rare tumors and tumor-like conditions that can occur in the adrenal as benign or malignant. This classification follows predominant trends in observed biologic behavior while acknowledging those tumors that may behave in the minority in an unpredictable manner. We review the clinical background and presentation of functional adrenal tumors including Conn syndrome, Cushing syndrome, and catecholamine-secreting tumors, as well as their relationship with adrenal anatomy. We discuss a variety of benign tumors, including adrenal cortical adenoma (including oncocytoma) and pheochromocytoma, as well as uncommonly and rarely encountered tumors such as myelolipoma, hemangioma, lymphangioma, schwannoma, ganglioneuroma, and adenomatoid tumor. A variety of tumefactive but nonneoplastic lesions are addressed, including adrenal cortical hyperplasia, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal cysts, and infections. Malignant tumors discussed include adrenal cortical carcinoma, the rare malignant pheochromocytoma, lymphoma, metastases, and sarcomas. For each tumor and tumor-like lesion, the clinical presentation, epidemiology, key imaging findings, diagnostic differential considerations, and management options are briefly addressed. Finally, an approach to the workup of suspected or incidentally discovered tumors is presented based on a selected literature survey and our clinical experience. Radiologists play an important role in identification and diagnosis of adrenal tumors and tumor-like conditions in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. © RSNA, 2014.
PubMed | The Joint Pathology Center and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiologic clinics of North America | Year: 2016
An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations.
Butler D.A.,Medical Follow up Agency |
Baker T.P.,The Joint Pathology Center
Military Medicine | Year: 2015
The Department of Defense’s Joint Pathology Center (JPC) is the world’s largest collection of human pathology specimens, comprising some 7.4 million accessions. The biorepository, which began during the Civil War as a collection of materials obtained from medical and surgical procedures performed by Army physicians, houses specimens and associated data obtained for diagnostic purposes. It also holds several collections of specimens from military personnel who shared a common, service-related exposure or medical condition. This article, which is excerpted and adapted from the 2012 Institute of Medicine report “Future Uses of the Department of Defense JPC Biorepository,”1 summarizes information on the repository, its past uses, and the future operational issues and challenges that the JPC faces as it develops a concept of operations that will allow it to move forward as a resource for researchers. © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S. All rights reserved.
Sirajuddin A.,University of Arizona |
Raparia K.,Northwestern University |
Lewis V.A.,Northwestern University |
Franks T.J.,The Joint Pathology Center |
And 4 more authors.
Radiographics | Year: 2016
The pulmonary lymphoid system is complex and is composed of two compartments: the pulmonary lymphatics and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Additional important cells that function in the pulmonary lymphoid system include dendritic cells, Langherhans cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. An appreciation of the normal lymphoid anatomy of the lung as well as its immunology is helpful in understanding the radiologic and pathologic findings of the primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Primary lymphoid lesions of the lung arise from the BALT and are uncommon. However, they are increasingly recognized within the growing number of posttransplant patients as well as other patients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Last, a miscellaneous group of primary lymphoid lesions includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)–related lymphoma, and intravascular lymphoma/ lymphomatosis. These lesions are best evaluated with multidetector chest computed tomography. The radiologic findings of the primary lymphoid lesions are often nonspecific and are best interpreted in correlation with clinical data and pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review pulmonary lymphoid anatomy as well as the most common primary pulmonary lymphoid disorders. © RSNA, 2016.
Kligerman S.J.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Franks T.J.,The Joint Pathology Center |
Galvin J.R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Galvin J.R.,American Institute for Radiologic Pathology
Radiographics | Year: 2013
Organization, characterized by fibroblast proliferation, is a common and nearly universal response to lung injury whether it is focal or diffuse. Despite the vast range of injurious agents, the lung's response to injury is quite limited, with a similar pattern of reaction seen radiologically and histologically regardless of the underlying cause. Although there is a tendency to divide organization into distinct entities, the underlying injury to the alveolar epithelial basement membrane is a uniting factor in these processes. This pattern of lung injury is seen in the organizing phase of diffuse alveolar damage, organizing pneumonia (OP), acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia, and certain types of fibrotic lung disease. In addition, although organization can heal without significant injury, in some instances it progresses to fibrosis, which can be severe. When fibrosis due to organization is present, other histologic and imaging patterns, such as those seen in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, can develop, reflecting that fibrosis can be a sequela of organization. This article reviews the histologic and radiologic findings of organization in lung injury due to diffuse alveolar damage, OP, and acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia and helps radiologists understand that the histologic and radiologic findings depend on the degree of injury and the subsequent healing response. © RSNA, 2013.