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Oxford, United Kingdom

Jarrett M.E.,The John Radcliffe Hospital
Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland

The aim was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of an enterocoele and grade of rectal prolapse (RP). Defaecating proctograms of consecutive patients presenting to the Oxford Pelvic Floor Clinic between January 2004 and November 2008 were analysed. Patients were included if they had full thickness internal (grades 1-4 prolapse) or external RP (grade 5 prolapse). All those included were analysed with regards to the presence of an enterocoele. Three hundred and seventy-one patients [322 (87%) women and 49 (23%) men] were found to have a degree of RP. One out of eight (12.5%) patients with grade 1 RP, 10/42 (18.5%) with grade 2 RP, 34/125 (27%) with grade 3 RP, 62/135 (46%) with grade 4 RP and 23/49 (47%) with grade 5 full thickness external RP had an enterocoele present. This was a statistically significant trend (Pearson chi(2) test P < 0.0002). There was a significantly higher proportion of enterocoeles in women [125/322 (39%) than in men (5/49 (10%)] (P < 0.0001) and a higher likelihood of having an enterocoele with advancing age (P < 0.0001). Within the study, there was no significant difference in the proportion of nulliparous and parous women with enterocoeles (P = 0.8); there were a significantly higher proportion of enterocoeles in hysterectomized women (P = 0.015). Enterocoele is increasingly seen with advancing RP severity. This suggests that the two findings are part of the same pelvic floor process. These data support the hypothesis that enterocoele is a marker of severe pelvic floor weakness. Enterocoele is seen more frequently in females particularly after hysterectomy. Source

Rahman F.,The John Radcliffe Hospital | Pandolfo M.,Free University of Colombia
Acta Neurologica Belgica

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by spinocerebellar degeneration and cardiomyopathy. Here we explore some of the putative mechanisms underlying the cardiomyopathy in FRDA that have been elucidated using different experimental models. FRDA is characterized by a deficiency in frataxin, a protein vital in iron handling. Iron accumulation, lack of functional iron-sulphur clusters, and oxidative stress seem to be among the most important consequences of frataxin deficiency explaining the cardiac abnormalities in FRDA. Source

Bowl M.R.,University of Oxford | Mirczuk S.M.,University of Oxford | Grigorieva I.V.,University of Oxford | Piret S.E.,University of Oxford | And 14 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics

GCMB is a member of the small transcription factor family GCM (glial cells missing), which are important regulators of development, present in vertebrates and some invertebrates. In man, GCMB encodes a 506 amino acid parathyroid gland-specific protein, mutations of which have been reported to cause both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism. We ascertained 18 affected individuals from 12 families with autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism and have investigated them for GCMB abnormalities. Four different homozygous germline mutations were identified in eight families that originate from the Indian Subcontinent. These consisted of a novel nonsense mutation R39X; a missense mutation, R47L in two families; a novel missense mutation, R110W; and a novel frameshifting deletion, I298fsX307 in four families. Haplotype analysis, using polymorphic microsatellites from chromosome 6p23-24, revealed that R47L and I298fsX307 mutations arose either as ancient founders, or recurrent de novo mutations. Functional studies including: subcellular localization studies, EMSAs and luciferase-reporter assays, were undertaken and these demonstrated that: the R39X mutant failed to localize to the nucleus; the R47L and R110W mutants both lost DNA-binding ability; and the I298fsX307 mutant had reduced transactivational ability. In order to gain further insights, we undertook 3D-modeling of the GCMB DNA-binding domain, which revealed that the R110 residue is likely important for the structural integrity of helix 2, which forms part of the GCMB/DNA binding interface. Thus, our results, which expand the spectrum of hypoparathyroidism-associated GCMB mutations, help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying DNA-binding and transactivation that are required for this parathyroid-specific transcription factor. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org. Source

Li J.,University of Toronto | Rohailla S.,University of Toronto | Gelber N.,University of Toronto | Rutka J.,Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Basic Research in Cardiology

Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion is a powerful cardioprotective strategy with additional pleiotropic effects. However, our understanding of its underlying mediators and mechanisms remains incomplete. We examined the role of miR-144 in the cardioprotection induced by rIPC. Microarray studies first established that rIPC increases, and IR injury decreases miR-144 levels in mouse myocardium, the latter being rescued by both rIPC and intravenous administration of miR-144. Going along with this systemic treatment with miR-144 increased P-Akt, P-GSK3β and P-p44/42 MAPK, decreased p-mTOR level and induced autophagy signaling, and induced early and delayed cardioprotection with improved functional recovery and reduction in infarct size similar to that achieved by rIPC. Conversely, systemic administration of a specific antisense oligonucleotide reduced myocardial levels of miR-144 and abrogated cardioprotection by rIPC. We then showed that rIPC increases plasma miR-144 levels in mice and humans, but there was no change in plasma microparticle (50-400 nM) numbers or their miR-144 content. However, there was an almost fourfold increase in miR-144 precursor in the exosome pellet, and a significant increase in miR-144 levels in exosome-poor serum which, in turn, was associated with increased levels of the miR carriage protein Argonaute-2. Systemic release of microRNA 144 plays a pivotal role in the cardioprotection induced by rIPC. Future studies should assess the potential for plasma miR-144 as a biomarker of the effectiveness of rIPC induced by limb ischemia, and whether miR-144 itself may represent a novel therapy to reduce clinical ischemia-reperfusion injury. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Royston D.J.,The John Radcliffe Hospital | Warren B.F.,The John Radcliffe Hospital
Colorectal Disease

Aim The accuracy of ileo-anal pouch biopsy reporting was assessed. Method The pathology reports of 100 consecutive pouch biopsies were reviewed to assess the accuracy and consistency with which the St Mark's histological scoring criteria were applied. The quality of pouch biopsy sampling and provision of clinical and endoscopic information on pathology request forms was also assessed. Results In 27% of cases no relevant endoscopic or clinical information was provided with the pathology request form. Separately labelled biopsies from the prepouch ileum, pouch and columnar cuff were submitted in only 4% of cases. In 32% of pathology reports, no acute or chronic St Mark's score was included. In 2% of cases the St Mark's scoring criteria were applied inappropriately. Twenty per cent of cases histologically diagnosed as pouchitis did not include a numerical score. In 30% of cases diagnosed histologically as pouchitis, an acute inflammatory score of <4 (i.e. insufficient for this diagnosis) was included in the report. Conclusion Pouchitis is a combined clinical, endoscopic and histological diagnosis. The correct interpretation and application of the St Mark's histological scoring criteria for pouch biopsies is an important part of this diagnostic process. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

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