The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control

Yehud Monosson, Israel

The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control

Yehud Monosson, Israel
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Kaspi R.,University of California at Davis | Kaspi R.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Yuval B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Parrella M.P.,University of California at Davis
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2011

Host feeding is common among synovigenic parasitoid wasps and is the mechanism through which they obtain nutrients for egg production. Upon host discovery, female wasps make a series of decisions that influence their host feeding and oviposition activities. Theoretical and empirical studies have shown that host availability is one of the factors that may affect these decisions. Diglyphus isaea, a synovigenic ectoparasitic wasp, parasitizes and kills (by feeding on or stinging) larval stages of agromyzid leafminer flies. We found that in the presence of large populations of adult leafminer flies, Liriomyza trifolii, the parasitoid wasp increased its host-killing behaviour, which appeared to be associated with a trend for increased protein uptake. Our study suggests that anticipated future host availability, which is based on a 'host cue detour' (sensu 'infochemical detour'), affects the host-killing and host-feeding behaviour of this parasitoid wasp. © 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Goldshtein E.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Cohen Y.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Hetzroni A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Gazit Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | And 5 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2017

Continuous monitoring of population fluctuations is important to improve the control of economic pests. The Mediterranean fruit fly [medfly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] is a major economic pest of fruit crops worldwide, particularly in the Middle East. The current medfly weekly monitoring method, manual counting, results in a suboptimal spraying frequency in citrus orchards. This paper describes the development of an automatic trap for sequential medfly remote monitoring. To our knowledge, it is the first automatic trap developed for medfly monitoring. A new cylinder-shaped trap was designed, and optical sensors specifically created for detecting and counting dead or stunted Medflies were embedded in it. Field tests were conducted to estimate the trapping efficiency, accuracy and over-counting of the medfly Automatic Traps (medfly-ATs). medfly-ATs and Steiner traps were placed in commercial citrus orchards over five different periods between the years 2013 and 2015. The medfly-AT and conventional Steiner trap were found to have similar trapping efficiencies under field conditions. The accuracy of the medfly-AT counts ranged between 88% and 100%; the absolute over-counting in all experimental sites and periods was three flies. Over-counting was mostly due to ants and rain. The paper discusses the importance of field tests in evaluating the performance of automatic traps. Results of an informal experiment conducted in a commercial orchard showed that daily monitoring using the medfly-AT device holds promise for reducing insecticide applications, but extensive in-field experiments should be conducted to prove it. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Argov Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Blanchet A.,European Biological Control Laboratory | Gazit Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control
Biological Control | Year: 2011

Three braconid species that parasitize the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recently imported into Israel. Several of their key biological parameters were studied. The longevities of the egg-attacking parasitoids Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Fopius ceratitivorus (Wharton), and the larval parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C were 42.1 ± 2.0. d, 36.9 ± 2.0. d and 18.6 ± 1.6. d, respectively. These wasps oviposited for 17.8 ± 0.9. d, 17.7 ± 0.8. d and 12.7 ± 1.6. d, during which they produced 133.0 ± 20.5, 103.9 ± 12.4 and 282.7 ± 43.1 offspring/female, respectively. The daily fecundity rates were 6.8 ± 1.8, 5.0 ± 1.0 and 15.3 ± 2.0, offspring/female/day, with sex ratios (females) of 43.0 ± 7.9%, 69.4 ± 3.3% and 59.0 ± 1.8%, respectively. F. arisanus and F. ceratitivorus preferred to oviposit into 48 h-old eggs, while D. kraussii preferred to oviposit in 7 d-old (late 2nd to early 3rd instar) larvae, a spherical, artificial oviposition unit was developed for the egg-prepupal parasitoid F. ceratitivorus. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Argov Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Schatz B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Gazit Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) (CLM), is a citrus pest indigenous to Southeast Asia. It was discovered in Israel in 1994. The pest attacks the young foliage of citrus, and damage is caused by the larvae tunnelling under the epidermis of young leaves, leading to foliage destruction. The present study documents basic biological parameters of three exotic eulophid wasps in the laboratory: Semielacher petiolatus, Quadrastichus citrella and Teleopterus sp. S. petiolatus females preferred to lay eggs in the 3rd larval instar of CLM, but did not lay eggs in the 1st instar. Its development ranged from 9 to 14 days. Female longevity was 30.2±5.9 days, its daily oviposition was 12.16±0.68 eggs/day, the total number of eggs oviposited per female was 278.9±74.1, and the number of CLM larvae parasitised was 260.0±68.3. Q. citrella preferred to lay in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, but not in the 1st instar, its development ranged from 9 to 14 days, female longevity was 40.6±1.9 days, oviposition came to 8.3±0.6 eggs/day, the total number of eggs oviposited was 281.3±64.9/female and the number of parasitised CLM larvae was 276.5±63.7. Teleopterus sp. preferred to lay eggs in the 3rd larval instar, its development required 11-17 days, female longevity was 28.7±3.8 days, its daily number of offspring was 5.2±0.38 offspring/day and with emergence of 138.9±27.7 offspring/female. This knowledge enabled us to maintain high quality cultures for their releases in Israel. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Gavriel S.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Gavriel S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Gazit Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Yuval B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

To improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), our objectives in this study were two-fold. First, to evaluate the ability of sterile males of the Vienna-8 strain to survive starvation, we compared them to wild males under laboratory conditions. The second objective was to determine the effect of protein-rich nutrition on sterile male fly survival, under starvation conditions in the laboratory, under semi-natural conditions in a field enclosure, and under natural conditions in the open field. Therefore, we released marked sterile flies of the two diet regimes, protein-fed or protein-deprived, and monitored their survival by recapturing them after 4, 6, and 7 days. In the laboratory, wild males endured starvation significantly better than sterile ones and protein addition to sterile fly diet resulted in even greater reduced capability to endure starvation. On the other hand, the addition of protein to sterile-male diet did not affect their ability to survive in a field enclosure or in the open field. We conclude that under natural conditions, where food is available, sterile male fly survival is unaffected by protein-rich pre-release diet. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Gavriel S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Gazit Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Leach A.,Center for Environmental Policy | Mumford J.,Center for Environmental Policy | Yuval B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2012

The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), depends largely on the ability of sterile flies to spread in the target area and compete with the wild males for wild females. Our objectives in the present study were three-fold: (1) to evaluate the dispersal ability of sterile male medflies and compare their spatial dispersion patterns with that of wild males, (2) to evaluate how different release methods affect subsequent spatial dispersal, and (3) to determine whether manipulating the pre-release diet of sterile males affects their dispersal. To achieve these objectives, we conducted three experiments in the field where we quantified and analyzed the spatial and temporal dispersal patterns of sterile medflies and the dispersion of resident wild males. Overall, ca. 5% of the released sterile flies were recaptured 100m from the release point, and ca. 2% were recaptured 200m from the release point. The released flies rarely survived longer than 5-7days. We repeatedly found that the spatial dispersion patterns of sterile males significantly correlated with those of wild males. Release methods strongly affected subsequent fly dispersal in the field as significantly more flies were recaptured following a scattered release vs. a central one. Finally, we show that enriching sterile fly pre-release diet with protein did not affect subsequent dispersal in the field. We conclude that sterile males are able to match the dispersion patterns of wild males, an outcome that is highly important for SIT success. Large releases from central points distant from each other may leave many areas uncovered. Accordingly, scattered releases, repeated twice a week, will provide better coverage of all available aggregations sites. The spatial performance of protein-fed males suggests that pre-release diet amendments may be used without detriment as a sexual stimulant in SIT programs. © 2011 The Authors. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata © 2011 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Rempoulakis P.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Rempoulakis P.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Afshar N.,Queen Mary, University of London | Osorio B.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 10 more authors.
BioMetals | Year: 2014

Μetal cofactors are required for enzymatic catalysis and structural stability of many proteins. Physiological metal requirements underpin the evolution of cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for metal uptake, storage and excretion. Considering the role of metal biology in animal evolution, this paper asks whether metal content is conserved between different fruit flies. A similar metal homeostasis was previously observed in Drosophilidae flies cultivated on the same larval medium. Each species accumulated in the order of 200 µg iron and zinc and approximately ten-fold less manganese and copper per gram dry weight of the adult insect. In this paper, data on the metal content in fourteen species of Tephritidae, which are major agricultural pests worldwide, are presented. These fruit flies can be polyphagous (e.g., Ceratitis capitata) or strictly monophagous (e.g., Bactrocera oleae) or oligophagous (e.g., Anastrepha grandis) and were maintained in the laboratory on five distinct diets based on olive oil, carrot, wheat bran, zucchini and molasses, respectively. The data indicate that overall metal content and distribution between the Tephritidae and Drosophilidae species was similar. Reduced metal concentration was observed in B. oleae. Feeding the polyphagous C. capitata with the diet of B. oleae resulted in a significant quantitative reduction of all metals. Thus, dietary components affect metal content in some Tephritidae. Nevertheless, although the evidence suggests some fruit fly species evolved preferences in the use or storage of particular metals, no metal concentration varied in order of magnitude between these two families of Diptera that evolved independently for over 100 million years. © 2014 The Author(s)

Gazit Y.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Gavriel S.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Akiva R.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control | Timar D.,The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2013

GF-120, a fruit fly bait designed to attract and kill adult fruit flies, was tested in the laboratory and outdoors to determine effects of pre-treatment diet and bait aging on mortality of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two spinosad-based compounds, GF-120 and Tracer® Ultra, had generated two distinctive dose-mortality responds, with LC80, LC90, and LC99 values of 2.4, 2.8, and 4.1 p.p.m., and 255, 479, and 1 143 p.p.m., respectively. The residues of GF-120 drops, after feeding to the flies, generated 14.3% mortality. The droplet size of the baited spray plays an important role. The toxicity of large drops lasted more than that of small droplets. In the field, exposure to the sun further deteriorates the compound, which lost 50% of its toxicity within 6 days. Disappearance of the compound in the field, due to consumption by various insects, also played a role as 50% of the GF-120 drops disappeared within 7 days. As mortality was directly related to the amount of insecticide eaten, the effect of GF-120 depended on the feeding status of the flies: well-fed flies were almost unaffected compared with starved ones. © 2013 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

PubMed | The Israel Cohen Institute for Biological Control
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is an endemic pest in Israel and there can be low levels of infestation of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Because C. capitata is considered a quarantine pest by several major importing countries, the export of fresh dates requires the elimination of this pest. For mandarin, cold storage at 1.11C for 15 d is considered to be an effective treatment for the elimination of C. capitata. In this study, we compared the cold tolerance of C. capitata in Barhi dates to that of C. capitata in mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch, Satsuma). In Barhi dates, we found the third instars to be the most cold-tolerant as compared with other life stages. Ceratitis capitata in date fruits were significantly less cold-tolerant than C. capitata in Satsuma mandarins. The last viable larvae in dates and mandarins were found after 8 and 13 d of treatment, respectively, and the calculated mortality curves in the two crops were significantly different. These results demonstrate that C. capitata is more sensitive to cold treatment when in date fruits than in mandarins. Therefore, the quarantine cold treatments used to eliminate C. capitata from mandarins should be sufficiently effective if applied to fresh date fruits.

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