The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection

Tehrān, Iran

The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection

Tehrān, Iran
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Rezakhanlou A.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Mirshekari B.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Zand E.,The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection | Farahvash F.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Baghestani M.A.,The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

In the agricultural year of 2011, an experiment was done in farm conditions with the purpose of analyzing the effect of different doses of the Trifloxysulfuron-sodium herbicide and its decreased amounts. This experiment was done in a split-plot fashion in completely randomized blocks. The main plot consisted of three types of cotton (Sealand, Mehr, and Dr. Omoumi) and the subsidiary plot had the consumable doses of herbicide (0, 10, 13, 16, 19 grams per hectare). Simultaneously with the cultivation of cotton, xanthium strumarium (rough cocklebur) was also cultivated with a density of 2 bushes per linear meter. When the rough cocklebur had 5-6 leaves, spraying was done with the required doses, and 3 and 5 weeks after spraying, the data collection took place. The results indicated that the highest efficiency of the herbicide was when the doses were 16 and 19 grams per hectare, and of course, there wasn't a meaningful difference between the two. Also, among the numbers, there was no meaningful difference in terms of the efficiency of the herbicides. About the effects of the different doses of herbicide on the height of the rough cocklebur 2 and 5 weeks after sprouting, results indicated that the lowest height belonged to the 16 and 19 gram treatments and the highest height was achieved in the control treatment with no herbicide at all. Using a logistic curve -response to the dose of herbicide when using no herbicide -Sealand's performance was higher than the other types and its numerical value was 119 grams per square meter and Dr. Omoumi and Mehr had 82 and 86 grams respectively. The maximum slope of the curve belonged to the Sealand treatment (084.0), the Mehr type had the minimum slope (023.0), and Dr. Omumi's slope was 038.0. © 2014 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved.


Rezakhanlou A.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Mirshekari B.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Zand E.,The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection | Farahvash F.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Baghestani M.A.,The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Resistance to herbicides in the most important weeds threatens the sustainability of cotton production. Weed-competitive cotton cultivars could be a low-cost and safe non-chemical addition to an integrated weed management program to increase the cotton yield. Trade-offs between competitiveness and productivity and inconsistent trait expression under weedy and weed-free conditions could complicate the breeding of competitive cotton cultivars. A field study was conducted in 2011 on sandy loam to determine the influence of densities of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) on the competitiveness of cotton varieties. Weeds were established at densities of 0. 2 and 4 weeds/m of row and allowed to compete the entire season with cotton grown at density of 4 plants/m of row corresponding to 66,000 cotton plants/ha. Conventional cultural practices were employed in these experiments. Cotton yield was inversely related to weed density; cotton yield decreased 31% for every one unit increase in cocklebur density/m of crop row. There was variation between cultivars for year of variety introduction (P<0.01). Correlation between year of variety introduction and cotton yield was positive in weed free condition, but in term of competition, this relation was negative. Even though modern cultivars have superior yields in the weed free condition, they are unable to suppress weed growth. Therefore, early year introduced variety had high competitiveness ability to cocklebur but modern variety showed weak competitiveness.


Mohamadzadeh Z.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Zand E.,The Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection | Nejadsattari T.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Naghavi M.R.,University of Tehran | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

The genus Avena contains about 27 different species from diploid to hexaploid with different genome compositions. Wild oat is among the worst weeds of grain crops. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of wild oat genetic resources for its effective management and for evaluating its accessions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of 59 accessions of two wild oat species A. fatua and A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana. Eight SSR markers were used to assess the genetic variation of 59 accessions gathered from different parts of Iran. All microsatellite markers showed polymorphism. The average number of alleles per each SSR locus was 3.75 for A. fatua and 4.62 for A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana. The average PIC value was 0.7 for both A. fatua and A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana. Cluster analysis based on Neighbor-Joining (NJ) showed a dendrogram with two clusters and splitting feature of A. fatua and A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana which congruent with known information on different growing areas. The cluster analysis results suggested that the genetic diversities of these wild oat accessions were associated with their geographical distribution. Overall, the results showed these 8 primers could completely separate A. fatua and A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana accessions from each other.

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