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Harrison J.L.,Cornell University | Alders R.G.,The International Rural Poultry Center | Alders R.G.,Tufts University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

This paper describes the management practices of village poultry in Chibuto and the impact of the Newcastle disease vaccination program conducted between January 2005 and August 2008. A 51-question survey was conducted in 11 villages involved in the Newcastle disease vaccination program in Chibuto, Mozambique. The mean flock size was significantly higher in households that provided their chickens with feed (15.0) than chickens that only scavenged (8.7; P = 0.0001). The mean flock size was significantly higher in households with vaccinated chickens (16.9) than those with unvaccinated chickens (10.0; P = 0.0005). The average number of chicks hatched during the most recent brooding was significantly higher in households that fed their chickens (9.2) than chickens that only scavenge (6.9; P = 0.0335). The mean hatch rate was significantly higher in households with vaccinated chickens (0.8) than those with unvaccinated chickens (0.7; P = 0.0324). It was determined that unvaccinated chickens are approximately five times more at risk to die of Newcastle disease (odds ratio = 4.79). This study supported the efficacy of the I-2 Newcastle disease vaccine as shown by the increased average flock size and decreased incidence of chicken mortality due to Newcastle disease. The level of farmer involvement and ongoing commitment by community vaccinators suggest that the Chibuto vaccination program is likely to be sustainable in the medium- to long-term. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bagnol B.,The International Rural Poultry Center | Bagnol B.,University of Witwatersrand | Alders R.G.,University of Sydney | Costa R.,The International Rural Poultry Center | And 9 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

Newcastle disease (ND) is considered a major constraint to village chicken production and results in significant mortality and economic loss every year. I-2 vaccine, a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eye drop, was introduced to Southern Africa in 1996 and has proven effective in controlling the disease. As ND is controlled, chicken production increases, and food security, food sovereignty and women's economic status improve. For the control of ND to be effective and sustainable a safe and potent vaccine is necessary but community vaccinators and farmers also need to be happy. This requires: (1) an enabling policy environment, support and coordination by relevant government agencies for the promotion and implementation of vaccination programs; (2) appropriate vaccine, locally produced and quality assured; (3) adequate packaging and administration technique, cold chain, distribution through local veterinary services and three timely vaccination campaigns per year; (4) effective and gender sensitive extension materials; (5) simple evaluation and monitoring systems by vaccinators and leaders, participatory rural assessment (PRA), participatory impact assessment (PIA) and surveys; (6) understanding the role of chickens in the farmers' livelihood strategy; (7) selection of community vaccinators, community involvement, training at all levels and (8) economic sustainability for farmers, vaccinators and veterinary vaccine laboratory services. This paper analyses the reasons for the success of the ND vaccination campaigns in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania.

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