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Herzliya Pituah, Israel

The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya is a private academic institution in Israel founded in 1994 by Uriel Reichman. It is located at Herzliya, in the Tel Aviv District and is classified as a non-budgeted academic institution.IDC Herzliya has 6,500 students currently enrolled for undergraduate and graduate degrees, including 1,500 international students from 86 countries around the world.In 2013 the IDC Herzliya was ranked the most successful start-up university in Israel and outside of the United States, ranking #1 in Israel and #21 in the world. In the same year IDC law graduates achieved the highest passing rate at the national bar examination of all Israeli academic institutions. Wikipedia.

Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

In the standard entropic mechanism adopted in the simple Ekpyrotic models to generate the nearly scale-invariant and Gaussian primordial perturbation, the entropy direction is tachyonically unstable. In this Letter, we consider the stable production of the scale-invariant entropy perturbation in the Ekpyrotic universe via non-minimal couplings. In this model the non-minimally coupled massless scalar field serves as a spectator and is stabilized by the introduced non-minimal couplings. It always corresponds to the entropy field during the contraction and with appropriate couplings can obtain a scale-invariant spectrum. This scenario requires additional mechanisms such as curvaton or modulated preheating to convert the entropy perturbation to the curvature perturbation after the bounce. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

It is believed that the recent detection of large tensor perturbations strongly favors the inflation scenario in the early universe. This common sense depends on the assumption that Einstein's general relativity is valid at the early universe. In this paper we show that nearly scale-invariant primordial tensor perturbations can be generated during a contracting phase before the radiation dominated epoch if the theory of gravity is modified by the scalar-tensor theory at that time. The scale-invariance protects the tensor perturbations from suppressing at large scales and they may have significant amplitudes to fit BICEP2's result. We construct a model to achieve this purpose and show that the universe can bounce to the hot big bang after long time contraction, and at almost the same time the theory of gravity approaches to general relativity through stabilizing the scalar field. Theoretically, such models are dual to inflation models if we change to the frame in which the theory of gravity is general relativity. Dual models are related by the conformal transformations. With this study we reinforce the point that only the conformal invariant quantities such as the scalar and tensor perturbations are physical. How did the background evolve before the radiation time depends on the frame and has no physical meaning. It is impossible to distinguish different pictures by later time cosmological probes. © 2014 The Author. Source

Raivio T.L.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2014

The Cpx envelope stress response (ESR) has been linked to proteins that are integrated into and secreted across the inner membrane for several decades. Initial studies of the cpx locus linked it to alterations in the protein content of both the inner and outer membrane, together with changes in proton motive driven transport and conjugation. Since the mid 1990s, the predominant view of the Cpx envelope stress response has been that it serves to detect and respond to secreted, misfolded proteins in the periplasm. Recent studies in Escherichia coli and other Gram negative organisms highlight a role for the Cpx ESR in specifically responding to perturbations that occur at the inner membrane (IM). It is clear that Cpx adaptation involves a broad suite of changes that encompass many functions in addition to protein folding. Interestingly, recent studies have refocused attention on Cpx-regulated phenotypes that were initially published over 30. years ago, including antibiotic resistance and transport across the IM. In this review I will focus on the insights and models that have arisen from recent studies and that may help explain some of the originally published Cpx phenotypes. Although the molecular nature of the inducing signal for the Cpx ESR remains enigmatic, recently solved structures of signaling proteins are yielding testable models concerning the molecular mechanisms behind signaling. The identification of connections between the Cpx ESR and other stress responses in the cell reveals a complex web of interactions that involves Cpx-regulated expression of other regulators as well as small proteins and sRNAs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013. Source

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 cotransporters are responsible for reabsorption of 90 % of the glucose filtered by the kidney. The glucuretic effect resulting from SGLT2 inhibition contributes to reduce hyperglycaemia and also assists weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Several SGLT2 inhibitors are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin) and in Japan (ipragliflozin, tofogliflozin). These SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites and a low renal elimination as a parent drug. Pharmacokinetic parameters are slightly altered in the case of chronic kidney disease (CKD). While no dose adjustment is required in the case of mild CKD, SGLT2 inhibitors may not be used or only at a lower daily dose in patients with moderate CKD. Furthermore, the pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors as assessed by urinary glucose excretion declines with increasing severity of renal impairment as assessed by a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, the glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors are almost comparable in patients with mild CKD as in patients with normal kidney function. In patients with moderate CKD, the efficacy tends to be dampened and safety concerns may occur. In patients with severe CKD, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors is contraindicated. Thus, prescribing information should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in the case of renal dysfunction for each SGLT2 inhibitor. The clinical impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy deserve attention because of preliminary favourable results in animal models. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Eichmann A.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine | Year: 2013

The human central nervous system (CNS) features a network of ~400 miles of blood vessels that receives >20% of the body's cardiac output and uses most of its blood glucose. Many human diseases, including stroke, retinopathy, and cancer, are associated with the biology of CNS blood vessels. These vessels originate from extrinsic cell populations, including endothelial cells and pericytes that colonize the CNS and interact with glia and neurons to establish the blood-brain barrier and control cerebrovascular exchanges. Neurovascular interactions also play important roles in adult neurogenic niches, which harbor a unique population of neural stem cells that are intimately associated with blood vessels. We here review the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to establish the CNS vascular network, with a special focus on neurovascular interactions and the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors. Source

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