The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya is a private academic institution in Israel founded in 1994 by Uriel Reichman. It is located at Herzliya, in the Tel Aviv District and is classified as a non-budgeted academic institution.IDC Herzliya has 6,500 students currently enrolled for undergraduate and graduate degrees, including 1,500 international students from 86 countries around the world.In 2013 the IDC Herzliya was ranked the most successful start-up university in Israel and outside of the United States, ranking #1 in Israel and #21 in the world. In the same year IDC law graduates achieved the highest passing rate at the national bar examination of all Israeli academic institutions. Wikipedia.
Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013
In the standard entropic mechanism adopted in the simple Ekpyrotic models to generate the nearly scale-invariant and Gaussian primordial perturbation, the entropy direction is tachyonically unstable. In this Letter, we consider the stable production of the scale-invariant entropy perturbation in the Ekpyrotic universe via non-minimal couplings. In this model the non-minimally coupled massless scalar field serves as a spectator and is stabilized by the introduced non-minimal couplings. It always corresponds to the entropy field during the contraction and with appropriate couplings can obtain a scale-invariant spectrum. This scenario requires additional mechanisms such as curvaton or modulated preheating to convert the entropy perturbation to the curvature perturbation after the bounce. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source
Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014
It is believed that the recent detection of large tensor perturbations strongly favors the inflation scenario in the early universe. This common sense depends on the assumption that Einstein's general relativity is valid at the early universe. In this paper we show that nearly scale-invariant primordial tensor perturbations can be generated during a contracting phase before the radiation dominated epoch if the theory of gravity is modified by the scalar-tensor theory at that time. The scale-invariance protects the tensor perturbations from suppressing at large scales and they may have significant amplitudes to fit BICEP2's result. We construct a model to achieve this purpose and show that the universe can bounce to the hot big bang after long time contraction, and at almost the same time the theory of gravity approaches to general relativity through stabilizing the scalar field. Theoretically, such models are dual to inflation models if we change to the frame in which the theory of gravity is general relativity. Dual models are related by the conformal transformations. With this study we reinforce the point that only the conformal invariant quantities such as the scalar and tensor perturbations are physical. How did the background evolve before the radiation time depends on the frame and has no physical meaning. It is impossible to distinguish different pictures by later time cosmological probes. © 2014 The Author. Source
Raivio T.L.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2014
The Cpx envelope stress response (ESR) has been linked to proteins that are integrated into and secreted across the inner membrane for several decades. Initial studies of the cpx locus linked it to alterations in the protein content of both the inner and outer membrane, together with changes in proton motive driven transport and conjugation. Since the mid 1990s, the predominant view of the Cpx envelope stress response has been that it serves to detect and respond to secreted, misfolded proteins in the periplasm. Recent studies in Escherichia coli and other Gram negative organisms highlight a role for the Cpx ESR in specifically responding to perturbations that occur at the inner membrane (IM). It is clear that Cpx adaptation involves a broad suite of changes that encompass many functions in addition to protein folding. Interestingly, recent studies have refocused attention on Cpx-regulated phenotypes that were initially published over 30. years ago, including antibiotic resistance and transport across the IM. In this review I will focus on the insights and models that have arisen from recent studies and that may help explain some of the originally published Cpx phenotypes. Although the molecular nature of the inducing signal for the Cpx ESR remains enigmatic, recently solved structures of signaling proteins are yielding testable models concerning the molecular mechanisms behind signaling. The identification of connections between the Cpx ESR and other stress responses in the cell reveals a complex web of interactions that involves Cpx-regulated expression of other regulators as well as small proteins and sRNAs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013. Source
Eichmann A.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine | Year: 2013
The human central nervous system (CNS) features a network of ~400 miles of blood vessels that receives >20% of the body's cardiac output and uses most of its blood glucose. Many human diseases, including stroke, retinopathy, and cancer, are associated with the biology of CNS blood vessels. These vessels originate from extrinsic cell populations, including endothelial cells and pericytes that colonize the CNS and interact with glia and neurons to establish the blood-brain barrier and control cerebrovascular exchanges. Neurovascular interactions also play important roles in adult neurogenic niches, which harbor a unique population of neural stem cells that are intimately associated with blood vessels. We here review the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to establish the CNS vascular network, with a special focus on neurovascular interactions and the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors. Source
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Interdisciplinary Center and Tel Aviv University | Date: 2013-03-20
A system and a method for decompression-free inspection of compressed data are provided herein. The method includes the following stages: obtaining a dictionary file comprising a string of symbols, each associated with a respective index; obtaining at least one delta file associated with said dictionary file, wherein said delta file comprises a sequence of instructions that include at least one copy instruction pointing to an index within said dictionary and a length of a copy substring to be copied; scanning said dictionary using a pattern matching algorithm associated with a plurality of patterns and implemented as a Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), to yield DFA execution data; scanning said at least one delta file, using said pattern matching algorithm, wherein said DFA execution data is used to skip at least part of the scanning of the copy substrings for at least one of the copy instructions.