The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya is a private academic institution in Israel founded in 1994 by Uriel Reichman. It is located at Herzliya, in the Tel Aviv District and is classified as a non-budgeted academic institution.IDC Herzliya has 6,500 students currently enrolled for undergraduate and graduate degrees, including 1,500 international students from 86 countries around the world.In 2013 the IDC Herzliya was ranked the most successful start-up university in Israel and outside of the United States, ranking #1 in Israel and #21 in the world. In the same year IDC law graduates achieved the highest passing rate at the national bar examination of all Israeli academic institutions. Wikipedia.
Bading H.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Synaptic activity initiates biochemical processes that have various outcomes, including the formation of memories, increases in neuronal survival and the development of chronic pain and addiction. Virtually all activity-induced, long-lasting adaptations of brain functions require a dialogue between synapses and the nucleus that results in changes in gene expression. Calcium signals that are induced by synaptic activity and propagate into the nucleus are a major route for synapse-to-nucleus communication. Recent findings indicate that diverse forms of neuroadaptation require calcium transients in the nucleus to switch on the necessary genomic programme. Deficits in nuclear calcium signalling as a result of a reduction in synaptic activity or increased extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signalling may underlie the aetiologies of various diseases, including neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Dallerac G.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Rouach N.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2016
Astrocytes are now viewed as key elements of brain wiring as well as neuronal communication. Indeed, they not only bridge the gap between metabolic supplies by blood vessels and neurons, but also allow fine control of neurotransmission by providing appropriate signaling molecules and insulation through a tight enwrapping of synapses. Recognition that astroglia is essential to neuronal communication is nevertheless fairly recent and the large body of evidence dissecting such role has focused on the synaptic level by identifying neuro- and gliotransmitters uptaken and released at synaptic or extrasynaptic sites. Yet, more integrated research deciphering the impact of astroglial functions on neuronal network activity have led to the reasonable assumption that the role of astrocytes in supervising synaptic activity translates in influencing neuronal processing and cognitive functions. Several investigations using recent genetic tools now support this notion by showing that inactivating or boosting astroglial function directly affects cognitive abilities. Accordingly, brain diseases resulting in impaired cognitive functions have seen their physiopathological mechanisms revisited in light of this primary protagonist of brain processing. We here provide a review of the current knowledge on the role of astrocytes in cognition and in several brain diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric illnesses, as well as other conditions such as epilepsy. Potential astroglial therapeutic targets are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Oliveira A.M.M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Learning and Memory | Year: 2016
DNA methylation was traditionally viewed as a static mechanism required during cell fate determination. This view has been challenged and it is now accepted that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of genomic responses in mature neurons, particularly in cognitive functions. The evidence for a role of DNA methylation in memory formation and maintenance comes from the increasing number of studies that have assessed the effects of manipulation of DNA methylation modifiers in the ability to form and maintain memories. Moreover, insights from genome-wide analyses of the hippocampal DNA methylation status after neuronal activity show that DNA methylation is dynamically regulated. Despite all the experimental evidence, we are still far from having a clear picture of how DNA methylation regulates long-term adaptations. This review aims on one hand to describe the findings that led to the confirmation of DNA methylation as an important player in memory formation. On the other hand, it tries to integrate these discoveries into the current views of how memories are formed and maintained. © 2016 Oliveira.
Saggar M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
NeuroImage | Year: 2014
Understanding the intentions and desires of those around us is vital for adapting to a dynamic social environment. In this paper, a novel event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with dynamic and natural stimuli (2s video clips) was developed to directly examine the neural networks associated with processing of gestures with social intent as compared to nonsocial intent. When comparing social to nonsocial gestures, increased activation in both the mentalizing (or theory of mind) and amygdala networks was found. As a secondary aim, a factor of actor-orientation was included in the paradigm to examine how the neural mechanisms differ with respect to personal engagement during a social interaction versus passively observing an interaction. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex and precentral gyrus was found sensitive to actor-orientation during social interactions. Lastly, by manipulating face-visibility we tested whether facial information alone is the primary driver of neural activation differences observed between social and nonsocial gestures. We discovered that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform gyrus (FFG) was partially driven by observing facial expressions during social gestures. Altogether, using multiple factors associated with processing of natural social interaction, we conceptually advance our understanding of how social stimuli is processed in the brain and discuss the application of this paradigm to clinical populations where atypical social cognition is manifested as a key symptom. © 2013.
Kann O.,University of Heidelberg |
Kann O.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2016
Fast-spiking, inhibitory interneurons - prototype is the parvalbumin-positive (PV+) basket cell - generate action potentials at high frequency and synchronize the activity of numerous excitatory principal neurons, such as pyramidal cells, during fast network oscillations by rhythmic inhibition. For this purpose, fast-spiking, PV+ interneurons have unique electrophysiological characteristics regarding action potential kinetics and ion conductances, which are associated with high energy expenditure. This is reflected in the neural ultrastructure by enrichment with mitochondria and cytochrome c oxidase, indicating the dependence on oxidative phosphorylation for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) generation. The high energy expenditure is most likely required for membrane ion transport in dendrites and the extensive axon arbor as well as for presynaptic release of neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Fast-spiking, PV+ interneurons are central for the emergence of gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) that provide a fundamental mechanism of complex information processing during sensory perception, motor behavior and memory formation in networks of the hippocampus and the neocortex. Conversely, shortage in glucose and oxygen supply (metabolic stress) and/or excessive formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (oxidative stress) may render these interneurons to be a vulnerable target. Dysfunction in fast-spiking, PV+ interneurons might set a low threshold for impairment of fast network oscillations and thus higher brain functions. This pathophysiological mechanism might be highly relevant for cerebral aging as well as various acute and chronic brain diseases, such as stroke, vascular cognitive impairment, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Hardingham G.E.,University of Edinburgh |
Bading H.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2010
There is a long-standing paradox that NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) can both promote neuronal health and kill neurons. Recent studies show that NMDAR-induced responses depend on the receptor location: stimulation of synaptic NMDARs, acting primarily through nuclear Ca2+ signalling, leads to the build-up of a neuroprotective 'shield', whereas stimulation of extrasynaptic NMDARs promotes cell death. These differences result from the activation of distinct genomic programmes and from opposing actions on intracellular signalling pathways. Perturbations in the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR activity contribute to neuronal dysfunction in acute ischaemia and Huntington's disease, and could be a common theme in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroprotective therapies should aim to both enhance the effect of synaptic activity and disrupt extrasynaptic NMDAR-dependent death signalling. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2016 | Award Amount: 870.02K | Year: 2016
Following previous TEN years of successful implementation of European Researchers Night in Israel we will have: o Venues covering the whole country. o Involvement of the academic community including Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space (MOST), all major research universities, leading collages and three science museums. o Awareness campaign at national level managed and funded by the Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space. o Groups of junior-high and high-school students (ages 12-18) will be invited by each partner to take part in each venue. We are ready and proud to implement European Researchers Night 2016 & 2017. All of the partners involved in the project have the experience of running successful European Researchers Nights events. With the successive increase in number of visitors along the years and the reputation of the event we are expecting more than 55,000 visitors each year. Same management as in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 successful events. Proposal covers both 2016 & 2017 European Researchers Night events.
Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013
In the standard entropic mechanism adopted in the simple Ekpyrotic models to generate the nearly scale-invariant and Gaussian primordial perturbation, the entropy direction is tachyonically unstable. In this Letter, we consider the stable production of the scale-invariant entropy perturbation in the Ekpyrotic universe via non-minimal couplings. In this model the non-minimally coupled massless scalar field serves as a spectator and is stabilized by the introduced non-minimal couplings. It always corresponds to the entropy field during the contraction and with appropriate couplings can obtain a scale-invariant spectrum. This scenario requires additional mechanisms such as curvaton or modulated preheating to convert the entropy perturbation to the curvature perturbation after the bounce. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Li M.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014
It is believed that the recent detection of large tensor perturbations strongly favors the inflation scenario in the early universe. This common sense depends on the assumption that Einstein's general relativity is valid at the early universe. In this paper we show that nearly scale-invariant primordial tensor perturbations can be generated during a contracting phase before the radiation dominated epoch if the theory of gravity is modified by the scalar-tensor theory at that time. The scale-invariance protects the tensor perturbations from suppressing at large scales and they may have significant amplitudes to fit BICEP2's result. We construct a model to achieve this purpose and show that the universe can bounce to the hot big bang after long time contraction, and at almost the same time the theory of gravity approaches to general relativity through stabilizing the scalar field. Theoretically, such models are dual to inflation models if we change to the frame in which the theory of gravity is general relativity. Dual models are related by the conformal transformations. With this study we reinforce the point that only the conformal invariant quantities such as the scalar and tensor perturbations are physical. How did the background evolve before the radiation time depends on the frame and has no physical meaning. It is impossible to distinguish different pictures by later time cosmological probes. © 2014 The Author.
Raivio T.L.,The Interdisciplinary Center
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2014
The Cpx envelope stress response (ESR) has been linked to proteins that are integrated into and secreted across the inner membrane for several decades. Initial studies of the cpx locus linked it to alterations in the protein content of both the inner and outer membrane, together with changes in proton motive driven transport and conjugation. Since the mid 1990s, the predominant view of the Cpx envelope stress response has been that it serves to detect and respond to secreted, misfolded proteins in the periplasm. Recent studies in Escherichia coli and other Gram negative organisms highlight a role for the Cpx ESR in specifically responding to perturbations that occur at the inner membrane (IM). It is clear that Cpx adaptation involves a broad suite of changes that encompass many functions in addition to protein folding. Interestingly, recent studies have refocused attention on Cpx-regulated phenotypes that were initially published over 30. years ago, including antibiotic resistance and transport across the IM. In this review I will focus on the insights and models that have arisen from recent studies and that may help explain some of the originally published Cpx phenotypes. Although the molecular nature of the inducing signal for the Cpx ESR remains enigmatic, recently solved structures of signaling proteins are yielding testable models concerning the molecular mechanisms behind signaling. The identification of connections between the Cpx ESR and other stress responses in the cell reveals a complex web of interactions that involves Cpx-regulated expression of other regulators as well as small proteins and sRNAs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013.