PubMed | The Integration of Traditional and Western Medical Research Academy of Hebei Province Shijiazhuang and Peking Union Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of translational research | Year: 2016
Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) extensively secrete cytokines during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). Tongxinluo (TXL) has been demonstrated to preserve the function of the endothelium and myocardium against MIRI. This study was designed to identify alterations in the paracrine function of CMECs under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) conditions and assess its modulation by TXL. CMECs were exposed to different concentrations of TXL for 30 min and then subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation for 12 and 2 h, respectively. Apoptosis was measured to determine the optimal TXL concentration. Protein antibody arrays were used to assess changes in cytokines secreted into conditioned medium by CMECs. A Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was applied to interpret the functional implications of changes in cytokines. TXL inhibited CMEC apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner after H/R, reaching peak efficacy at a concentration of 800 g/ml. H/R significantly altered 33 cytokines, and TXL (800 g/ml) changed the levels of 121 different cytokines compared with the H/R group. Among these cytokines, 10 that were increased by H/R were decreased by TXL, five that were decreased by H/R were increased by TXL, and eight that were attenuated by H/R were further decreased by TXL. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was up-regulated by H/R and was further increased by TXL. Significantly altered factors were found to be involved in cell proliferation, growth and differentiation, as well as chemotaxis and transport. TXL inhibited the apoptosis of CMECs and modulated their paracrine function in MIRI.