The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice

České Budějovice, Czech Republic

The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice

České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Vochozka M.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Marouskova A.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2017

Phytomass processing is hindered by a complex matrix of lignin and cellulose that is synthesized by plants as part of their natural defense against predators. Inspired by ruminants, bacteria, or fungi, many methods to overcome this hardly digestable lignocellulose structure have already been proposed. For its ability to possibly recover energy, under-hot-water maceration that is followed by a steam-explosion is often used in biogas plants, bioethanol refineries and even during the processing of sludge from sewage treatment plants. Quality indicators of organic matter in the phytomass, however, are variable in relation to the storage method, fertilization, the uniqueness of the growing season, and the like. Therefore, the processing parameters of chosen technologies should always be precisely tailored to avoid the formation of substances that would inhibit subsequent processing. The existing methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography, are time consuming and relatively expensive with a rapidly growing number of samples. The conclusiveness and valuation of the financial indicators of new biological methods have proven a high informative value and revealed new opportunities in the optimization of the process. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Vochozka M.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Marouskova A.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Suler P.,University of Zilina
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2017

The production of renewable energy in agricultural biogas plants is being widely criticized because—among other things—most of the feedstock comes from purpose-grown crops like maize. These activities (generously subsidized in the Czech Republic) generate competitive pressure to other crops that are used for feeding or food production, worsening their affordability. Unique pretreatment technology that allows substitution of the purpose-grown crops by farming residues (such as husk or straw) was built 6 years ago on a commercial basis in Pěčín (Czech Republic) under modest funding and without publicity. The design of the concept; financial assessment and moral viewpoint were analyzed based on practical operating data. It showed that the apparatus improves economic, environmental and moral acceptance as well. However, according to the government’s view, public funding for this type of processing was shortened, “because waste materials represent a lower cost”. The impact of such governance was analyzed as well. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Vochozka M.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Marouskova A.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2017

The recent decade of unprecedented support for renewable energy in Central Europe has led to a boom in the construction of biogas plants (among others). As renewables are coming close to being price competitive, this trend is passing onto a global scale and it is the developing countries in particular that are interested in technology transfer. Regardless of whether the biogas plant processes biowaste or purpose-grown phytomass, nowadays both are interlinked with farming practice, because it generates voluminous quantities of highly-diluted fermentation residues (FRs). These are routinely plowed into local arable land, however, there are uncertainties regarding their agrochemical and economic value. The market price of the FRs has stabilized under one third of what was expected at the beginning of the biogas fever. This has caused unexpected cash-flow problems to some business projects. Analyses revealed multiple reasons for the initial overestimation. It is indicated that the most overrated factor is the quality of organic matter in the FRs. Its low biodegradability limits the metabolism of nitrogen-mineralizing soil biota, which consequently slows the transformation of organic nitrogen into mineral forms that are accepted by plants. To make matters worse, the slow decomposition of hardly biodegradable organic matter forms preconditions that lead to worse water-retention soil characteristics. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Vochozka M.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Stehel V.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Marouskova A.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
3 Biotech | Year: 2017

Notable progress has been achieved in the past two decades regarding production of different enzymatic mixtures for hydrolysis of the lignocellulose matrix. Nevertheless, the hydrolysing mixtures remain slow and require tempering, which results in high-energy demands and bad financial results. Use of acids or alkali at a very high temperature and pressure accelerates the process more than ten times wherein the energy requirements are approximately equal. However, these elevated reaction conditions might cause the breakdown of complex lignin formula into substances that have the potential to inhibit subsequent fermentation processes. Formation of these breakdown products may be prevented by selecting the optimum process parameters, but their acquisition requires either a large number of expensive analytical techniques or equally large amounts of slow fermentation tests. An inexpensive and time saving alternative that is based on the sensitivity of chosen organisms to these inhibitors was designed and financially assessed. It was confirmed that the method is technically feasible and economically viable with significant potential to reduce the bioethanol production cost. © 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.


Marousek J.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
Science and engineering ethics | Year: 2015

Biochar is a soil-improving substrate made from phytomass pyrolysis. In Southeast Asia, its application decreases due to the long-term growth of biochar cost and thus caused further prolongation of the payback period. In the Euro-American civilization the biochar application is already almost forgotten once it has been much earlier recognized that the crop yields can be increased much faster with higher doses of nutrients and other agrochemicals. The payback period can be expected in decades. Such a long-time investment into soil fertility raises also many ethical questions. The final decision combines issues of social responsibility, risk and other financial indicators as well as personal preferences and more. The attitudes of Western and Central European decision makers in the agriculture business segment were analyzed on the basis of electronic questionnaire survey and a subsequent interview through their local unions. According to the data, most of them did not know about the possibilities of a more environmentally friendly approach to soil enhancement based on the addition of a fertilizer in the form of biochar. Among others, the collected data also shows that the decision makers from Western Europe have a much different ethical approach to the land and financial indicators than the Central Europeans.


Senitkova I.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Bednarova P.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

An indoor air quality seems to be one of the main problems of school buildings. This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Czech Republic by comparing the air change level and students performance in lecture halls. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air change level. The difference in perceived air quality and odor intensity was obvious between the different ventilation conditions. The acceptability of air quality assessed by the sensory panels showed significant correlation with the values of CO2 and TVOC concentrations. The indoor air quality in Czech Republic classrooms affects the health of students. The school buildings relating to indoor European Standard are mostly evaluated as the non-low polluting buildings. Therefore, indoor air quality needs to be considered as an important problem concerning to study effectivity and students’ performance. The study of indoor air acceptability concerning to indoor odors under occupancy and its effect on perceived air quality influenced by air change rate are presented within the paper. The indoor air quality improving by higher ventilation levels 2, 4, 7 l/person, substantially improves the student’ performance (1 - 3 %). Increased ventilation rate usually will increase indoor air quality what definitely increase learning especially mathematic and problem tasks solving. © SGEM2015.


Juhas P.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Senitkova I.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

The results of numerical analysis of middle and higher strength structural steels using in compression members are presented in the paper. The homogeneous I cross-sections of the members with web slenderness βw = 40, 48, 60, 80, 120; member length L = 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0 m and structural steels S235, S275, S355, S420 and S460 were assumed. The full theoretical plastic load Npl, local post-critical load Nul and global buckling load Nu,y and Nu,z for all considered members by the European standards EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-5 for the design of steel structures were calculated. It is known that these standards have been transformed into national standards of all CEN countries which are generally used from 2010. The effective applying of the higher strength steels on the compressed members taking in consideration their shaping and material optimization is presented in this paper. The obtained numerical results are compared and analyzed from the economical point of view. © SGEM2015.


Marousek J.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

A brief report on the development of novel apparatus is presented. It was verified in a commercial scale that a new concept of anaerobic fermentation followed by continuous pyrolysis is technically and economically feasible to manage previously enzymatically hydrolyzed waste haylage in huge volumes. The design of the concept is thoroughly described, documented in figures, and biochemically analyzed in detail. Assessment of the concept shows that subsequent pyrolysis of the anaerobically fermented residue allows among biogas to produce also high-quality biochar. This significantly improves the overall economy. In addition, it may be assumed that this applied research is consistent with previous theoretical assumptions stating that any kind of aerobic or anaerobic fermentation increases the microporosity of the biochar obtained. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Senitkova I.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2014

The material combination impact on perceived indoor air quality for various surface interior materials is presented in this paper. Traditional and progressive materials comparison reveals new fact regarding the sum of volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) concentration. The using possibility of individual material surfaces sorption ability was investigated. The chemical analysis and sensory assessments identifies health adverse of indoor air pollutants (TVOCs). In this study, emissions and odors from different common indoor surface materials were investigated in test chamber under standardized conditions. Chemical measurements (TVOCs concentration) and sensory assessments (odor intensity, perceived air quality) were done after building materials exposure to standardized conditions. The impact of individual materials and their interaction effects to the perceived air quality will be discussed within the paper. The knowledge of targeted sorption effect can be used already in the interior design phase. The results demonstrate the various sorption abilities of various indoor materials as well as the various sorption abilities of the same indoor materials in various combinations. © SGEM2014.


Vochozka M.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice | Marouskova A.,The Institute of Technology and Businesses in Ceske Budejovice
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2016

Generous subsidies granted in recent years by EU to promote the green energy policy and also to counterbalance changes in agricultural policies of the new member states have resulted, among other things, in development of numerous heating plants that utilize agricultural residues. With no previous experience, farmers are offered ash in unprecedented amounts as a cheap source of nutrients. A robust technical and economic analysis of the ash and its interactions with topsoil was carried out in a commercial scale in the course of 4 vegetation seasons. It has been proved that high doses of ash worsen water management of topsoil, specifically its susceptibility to erosion. Based on the result, a new economically justified method has been proposed which allows utilization of nutrients contained in the ash without jeopardizing quality indicators of the topsoil. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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