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Ko H.-J.,Monash University | Kinkel S.A.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Kinkel S.A.,University of Melbourne | Hubert F.-X.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) promotes "promiscuous" expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells to facilitate thymic deletion of autoreactive T-cells. Here, we show that AIRE-deficient mice showed an earlier development of myelin oligonucleotide glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To determine the outcome of ectopic Aire expression, we used a retroviral transduction system to over-express Aire in vitro, in cell lines and in bone marrow (BM). In the cell lines that included those of thymic medullary and dendritic cell origin, ectopically expressed Aire variably promoted expression of TRA including Mog and Ins2 (proII) autoantigens associated, respectively, with the autoimmune diseases multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. BM chimeras generated from BM transduced with a retrovirus encoding Aire displayed elevated levels of Mog and Ins2 expression in thymus and spleen. Following induction of EAE with MOG35-55, transplanted mice displayed significant delay in the onset of EAE compared with control mice. To our knowledge, this is the first example showing that in vivo ectopic expression of AIRE can modulate TRA expression and alter autoimmune disease development. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ling K.-H.,The Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and The Hanson Institute | Ling K.-H.,University of Adelaide | Ling K.-H.,University Putra Malaysia | Brautigan P.J.,The Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and The Hanson Institute | And 15 more authors.
Genomics | Year: 2016

Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are involved in cellular development and regulatory processes. Multiple NATs at the Sox4 gene locus are spatiotemporally regulated throughout murine cerebral corticogenesis. In the study, we evaluated the potential functional role of Sox4 NATs at Sox4 gene locus. We demonstrated Sox4 sense and NATs formed dsRNA aggregates in the cytoplasm of brain cells. Over expression of Sox4 NATs in NIH/3T3 cells generally did not alter the level of Sox4 mRNA expression or protein translation. Upregulation of a Sox4 NAT known as Sox4ot1 led to the production of a novel small RNA, Sox4_sir3. Its biogenesis is Dicer1-dependent and has characteristics resemble piRNA. Expression of Sox4_sir3 was observed in the marginal and germinative zones of the developing and postnatal brains suggesting a potential role in regulating neurogenesis. We proposed that Sox4 sense-NATs serve as Dicer1-dependent templates to produce a novel endo-siRNA- or piRNA-like Sox4_sir3. © 2016 The Authors.

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