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Fujita M.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Iijima K.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2013

To evaluate the various factors affecting pesticide residue levels in Japanese raw agricultural commodities (RACs), acetamiprid and cypermethrin residues in apple, broccoli, cabbage, grape, and sweet pepper samples were investigated. The individual variations of pesticide residue levels in apples were greater than other factors, such as field-to-field variations and separate analyses of edible and inedible portions. The results from various RACs indicate that differences in the distributions of the two pesticides might be due to the influence of various factors, such as differences in crop species, plant cultivation methods, and physicochemical properties of the pesticides. The statistical results indicate that a sufficient sampling size is required to obtain accurate analytical results. This study provided valuable information on estimating variations in pesticide residue levels in RACs in accordance with Japanese common agricultural practices. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Source


Fujita M.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Yajima T.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Tomiyama N.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Iijima K.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Sato K.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2014

To evaluate the influence of growing conditions on the pesticide residue in lettuce heads, we investigated the residue levels in open field and greenhouse conditions. A clear difference between the two growing conditions was observed for dinotefuran applied to the planting hole; the residue levels in the lettuce heads from the greenhouses were almost as high as those in the field samples. In contrast, no clear difference between the two growing conditions was observed for the other three pesticides applied to the foliage. The size reduction process for sample preparation also affected the variation in this residue data; the ranges between two size-reduced samples of dinotefuran were narrower than the values of the other three pesticides. Those results are part of the complex factors affecting the pesticide residue levels in lettuce heads in different growing conditions and with different types of application. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Source


Yajima T.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Fujita M.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Kondo K.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Iijima K.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2013

To find the effect of field-to-field variation in pesticide residue levels in Chinese cabbage and spinach, two residue datasets each were obtained from eight test fields in different years. Based on the obtained sixteen field datasets, the highest residue levels of five pesticides in Chinese cabbage and of three pesticides in spinach were 10.5 and 5.7 times higher than the lowest residue levels, respectively. The correlation of the pesticide residue levels in spinach samples between the data obtained in different years from the same six greenhouses was in good agreement (R2=0.8138). In contrast, there was no clear correlation between the pesticide residue levels in Chinese cabbage samples, which were grown in open fields. This different tendency observed in the residue data may be because of the difference in growing conditions. In addition, each datum of the pesticide residue was negatively correlated with the sample weight. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Source


Fujita M.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Yajima T.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Nagata T.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Tomiyama N.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2014

To evaluate the effects of sample-size reduction and separate analyses of fruit pulp and peel, residual levels of 3 pesticides in watermelons and muskmelons were determined. The pesticide residue levels in 2 types of size-reduced samples were compared. In one size-reduced sample, the pesticide residues in the pulp with the peel were analyzed (A). In the other size-reduced sample, residues in the pulp and peel were analyzed separately. Afterward, the pesticide residue levels were calculated for the whole fruit (B). The majority of the pesticide residues were found to be present in the peel. The mean percent differences (A/B±standard deviations [SD]) of pesticide residue levels in the watermelon and muskmelon samples were 91±15% and 83±11%, respectively. No significant effect of sample-size reduction and separate analyses of pulp and peel were found in determining the pesticide residues in large-sized fruiting vegetables. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Source


Iijima K.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Yajima T.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Nagata M.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | Sugimoto S.,The Institute of Environmental Toxicology IET | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2011

Flesh and seed weights of stone fruits such as cherry, ume (Japanese apricot), sumomo (Japanese plum), nectarine, and peach were investigated for calculations of pesticides residue levels determined utilizing both the Japanese and international definitions portions to be analyzed. The calculated correction factors ranged from 0.88 for ume to 0.96 for sumomo. Small fruit commodities such as cherry and ume are more influenced by the calculation procedure to convert to a whole commodity basis. These results indicate that calculated pesticide residue levels in whole commodities (international standard) are slightly lower than the actual concentrations without seeds (current Japanese regulations). © Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Source

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