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Kauffman S.A.,The Institute for Systems Biology | Gare A.,Swinburne University of Technology
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Attempts to 'naturalize' phenomenology challenge both traditional phenomenology and traditional approaches to cognitive science. They challenge Edmund Husserl's rejection of naturalism and his attempt to establish phenomenology as a foundational transcendental discipline, and they challenge efforts to explain cognition through mainstream science. While appearing to be a retreat from the bold claims made for phenomenology, it is really its triumph. Naturalized phenomenology is spearheading a successful challenge to the heritage of Cartesian dualism. This converges with the reaction against Cartesian thought within science itself. Descartes divided the universe between res cogitans, thinking substances, and res extensa, the mechanical world. The latter won with Newton and we have, in most of objective science since, literally lost our mind, hence our humanity. Despite Darwin, biologists remain children of Newton, and dream of a grand theory that is epistemologically complete and would allow lawful entailment of the evolution of the biosphere. This dream is no longer tenable. We now have to recognize that science and scientists are within and part of the world we are striving to comprehend, as proponents of endophysics have argued, and that physics, biology and mathematics have to be reconceived accordingly. Interpreting quantum mechanics from this perspective is shown to both illuminate conscious experience and reveal new paths for its further development. In biology we must now justify the use of the word "function". As we shall see, we cannot prestate the ever new biological functions that arise and constitute the very phase space of evolution. Hence, we cannot mathematize the detailed becoming of the biosphere, nor write differential equations for functional variables we do not know ahead of time, nor integrate those equations, so no laws "entail" evolution. The dream of a grand theory fails. In place of entailing laws, a post-entailing law explanatory framework is proposed in which Actuals arise in evolution that constitute new boundary conditions that are enabling constraints that create new, typically unprestatable, Adjacent Possible opportunities for further evolution, in which new Actuals arise, in a persistent becoming. Evolution flows into a typically unprestatable succession of Adjacent Possibles. Given the concept of function, the concept of functional closure of an organism making a living in its world, becomes central. Implications for patterns in evolution include historical reconstruction, and statistical laws such as the distribution of extinction events, or species per genus, and the use of formal cause, not efficient cause, laws. © 2015 . Source

Han X.,Zhejiang University | Fang X.,Zhejiang University | Lou X.,Zhejiang University | Hua D.,Zhejiang University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

SOX2 is an important stem cell marker and plays important roles in development and carcinogenesis. However, the role of SOX2 in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition has not been investigated. We demonstrated, for the first time, that SOX2 is involved in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) process as knock downof SOX2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) SW620 cells induced a Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET) process with recognized changes in the expression of key genes involved in the EMT process including E-cadherin and vimentin. In addition, we provided a link between SOX2 activity and the WNT pathway by showing that knock down of SOX2 reduced the WNT pathway activity in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We further demonstrated that SOX2 is involved in cell migration and invasion in vitro and in metastasis in vivo for CRC cells, and that the process might be mediated through the MMP2 activity. Finally, an IHC analysis of 44 cases of colorectal cancer patients suggested that SOX2 is a prognosis marker for metastasis of colorectal cancers. © 2012 Han et al. Source

The Institute For Systems Biology and NanoString Technologies | Date: 2013-03-11

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for detection and quantification of individual target molecules in biomolecular samples. In particular, the invention relates to coded, labeled probes that are capable of binding to and identifying target molecules based on the probes label codes. Methods of making and using such probes are also provided. The probes can be used in diagnostic, prognostic, quality control and screening applications.

The Institute For Systems Biology | Date: 2010-01-20

The invention provides methods for identifying and quantifying polypeptides in a sample. The methods include the steps of labeling peptides in a polypeptide sample with an isotope tag; adding a plurality of peptide standards to the polypeptide sample, wherein the peptide standards are labeled with an isotopically distinct version of the isotope tag; resolving the labeled sample and standard peptides into a plurality of fractions; analyzing the resolved fractions using mass spectrometry; identifying an isotope-tagged sample peptide in an analyzed fraction; and determining the amount of the identified isotope-tagged sample peptide in the analyzed fraction by comparison to the amount of isotope tagged standard peptide in the same fraction.

The Institute For Systems Biology | Date: 2010-03-12

The invention provides compositions and methods for identifying and/or quantifying glycopolypeptides from human serum or plasma. The compositions and methods include a plurality of standard peptides containing glycosylation sites determined for human serum/plasma proteins.

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