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Alvito P.C.,National Institute Of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge Insa | Sizoo E.A.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Almeida C.M.M.,The Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical science | van Egmond H.P.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2010

Infants have a more restricted diet and they generally consume more food on a body weight basis than adults. Therefore, the significance and potential health risk of any contaminant in foods consumed by infants is increased and diligent attention must be paid to this particular area. The present study aims to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1), aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in processed cereal-based foods (flours) and infant formulae (milk powder) available in the Portuguese market, both sold as conventional and organic origin. Mycotoxin determination was carried out using a method previously applied to duplicate diet samples. This method employed chloroform extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup and HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection after post-column derivatisation. Quantification limits were 0.014, 0.004 and 0.028 μg kg -1 for AFM 1, AFB 1 and OTA, respectively. These toxins could only be quantified in 12 of 27 analysed samples (15 positive results): two samples with AFM 1, two samples with AFM 1 and OTA, one sample with AFB 1 and OTA and seven samples with OTA. Positive results concerned four for AFM 1 (26%), one for AFB 1 (7%) and ten for OTA (67%). For these samples, contents ranged between 0.017-0.041 μg AFM 1 kg -1, 0.034-0.212 μg OTA kg -1, and one sample had a value of 0.009 μg AFB 1 kg -1. Considering the presented results, we could provisionally conclude that the presence of these mycotoxins in baby foods does not constitute a public health problem. These are the first results concerning the occurrence of mycotoxins in marketed baby foods in Portugal and this is the first study using the HPLC method, proposed for duplicate diets, in baby food sample analysis. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008. Source

Barreira M.J.,National Institute of Health | Alvito P.C.,National Institute of Health | Almeida C.M.M.,The Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical science
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

An analytic procedure based on high-performance liquid chromatography with solid-phase extraction and UV detection (SPE-HPLC-UV) was validated and used to analyse 144 apple-based-foods, including 68 apple juices (32 clear and 36 cloudy) and 76 homogenised apple purees marketed in Portugal. Patulin was detected in 33 samples (23%) with values ranging from 1.2 μg/kg to 42 μg/kg. Patulin was not detected in the analysed infant drinks but its presence was quantified in five homogenised apple puree (7%) labelled as being intended for infants and young children consumption. A higher incidence of positive samples was detected in cloudy juices (67%) when compared with clear ones (13%). When the production mode is considered, the incidence of positive samples was 20% and 24% for products of organic and conventional origin, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of patulin in apple-based-foods in Portugal, including baby food. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Fojo C.,University of Lisbon | Figueira M.E.,The Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical science | Figueira M.E.,Laboratorio Of Bromatologia E Qualidade Da Agua | Almeida C.M.M.,The Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical science | Almeida C.M.M.,Laboratorio Of Bromatologia E Qualidade Da Agua
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l-1, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l-1), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l-1, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l-1, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg-1 body weight day-1), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis. Source

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