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Smith N.R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Shaviv N.J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Shaviv N.J.,The Institute for Advanced Study | Svensmark H.,Technical University of Denmark
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

We present analytical solutions to the steady state nucleation-condensation-coagulation equation of aerosols in the atmosphere. These solutions are appropriate under different limits but more general than previously derived analytical solutions. For example, we provide an analytic solution to the coagulation limit plus a condensation correction. Our solutions are then compared with numerical results. We show that the solutions can be used to estimate the sensitivity of the cloud condensation nuclei number density to the nucleation rate of small condensation nuclei and to changes in the formation rate of sulfuric acid. © 2016 American Association for Aerosol Research © 2016 American Association for Aerosol Research. Source

Rivoire O.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Leibler S.,Rockefeller University | Leibler S.,The Institute for Advanced Study
Journal of Statistical Physics | Year: 2011

The notion of information pervades informal descriptions of biological systems, but formal treatments face the problem of defining a quantitative measure of information rooted in a concept of fitness, which is itself an elusive notion. Here, we present a model of population dynamics where this problem is amenable to a mathematical analysis. In the limit where any information about future environmental variations is common to the members of the population, our model is equivalent to known models of financial investment. In this case, the population can be interpreted as a portfolio of financial assets and previous analyses have shown that a key quantity of Shannon's communication theory, the mutual information, sets a fundamental limit on the value of information. We show that this bound can be violated when accounting for features that are irrelevant in finance but inherent to biological systems, such as the stochasticity present at the individual level. This leads us to generalize the measures of uncertainty and information usually encountered in information theory. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Moshkovitz D.,The Institute for Advanced Study | Raz R.,Weizmann Institute of Science
Computational Complexity | Year: 2010

We show a construction of a PCP with both sub-constant error and almost-linear size. Specifically, for some constant 0 < α < 1, we construct a PCP verifier for checking satisfiability of Boolean formulas that on input of size n uses random bits to make 7 queries to a proof of size, where each query is answered by bit long string, and the verifier has perfect completeness and error. The construction is by a new randomness-efficient version of the aggregation through curves technique. Its main ingredients are a recent low degree test with both sub-constant error and almost-linear size and a new method for constructing a short list of balanced curves. © 2009 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel. Source

Post S.M.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Quintas-Cardama A.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Pant V.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Iwakuma T.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2010

MDM2, a negative regulator of p53, is elevated in many cancers that retain wild-type p53. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human MDM2 promoter increases the affinity of Sp1 resulting in elevated MDM2 levels. We generated mice carrying either the MDM2SNP309T or the MDM2SNP309G allele to address the impact of MDM2SNP309G on tumorigenesis. Mdm2SNP309G/G cells exhibit elevated Mdm2 levels, reduced p53 levels, and decreased apoptosis. Importantly, some Mdm2SNP309G/G mice succumbed to tumors before 1 year of age, suggesting that this allele increases tumor risk. Additionally, the Mdm2SNP309G allele potentiates the tumor phenotype and alters tumor spectrum in mice inheriting a p53 hot-spot mutation. These data provide causal evidence for increased cancer risk in carriers of the Mdm2SNP309G allele. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dohm J.M.,University of Tokyo | Hare T.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | Robbins S.J.,Southwest Research Institute | Williams J.-P.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 20 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2015

The geologic history of the multi-ringed Argyre impact basin and surroundings has been reconstructed on the basis of geologic mapping and relative-age dating of rock materials and structures. The impact formed a primary basin, rim materials, and a complex basement structural fabric including faults and valleys that are radial and concentric about the primary basin, as well as structurally-controlled local basins. Since its formation, the basin has been a regional catchment for volatiles and sedimentary materials as well as a dominant influence on the flow of surface ice, debris flows, and groundwater through and over its basement structures. The basin is interpreted to have been occupied by lakes, including a possible Mediterranean-sized sea that formed in the aftermath of the Argyre impact event. The hypothesized lakes froze and diminished through time, though liquid water may have remained beneath the ice cover and sedimentation may have continued for some time. At its deepest, the main Argyre lake may have taken more than a hundred thousand years to freeze to the bottom even absent any heat source besides the Sun, but with impact-induced hydrothermal heat, geothermal heat flow due to long-lived radioactivities in early martian history, and concentration of solutes in sub-ice brine, liquid water may have persisted beneath thick ice for many millions of years. Existence of an ice-covered sea perhaps was long enough for life to originate and evolve with gradually colder and more hypersaline conditions. The Argyre rock materials, diverse in origin and emplacement mechanisms, have been modified by impact, magmatic, eolian, fluvial, lacustrine, glacial, periglacial, alluvial, colluvial, and tectonic processes.Post-impact adjustment of part of the impact-generated basement structural fabric such as concentric faults is apparent. Distinct basin-stratigraphic units are interpreted to be linked to large-scale geologic activity far from the basin, including growth of the Tharsis magmatic-tectonic complex and the growth into southern middle latitudes of south polar ice sheets. Along with the migration of surface and sub-surface volatiles towards the central part of the primary basin, the substantial difference in elevation with respect to the surrounding highlands and Tharsis and the Thaumasia highlands result in the trapping of atmospheric volatiles within the basin in the form of fog and regional or local precipitation, even today. In addition, the impact event caused long-term (millions of years) hydrothermal activity, as well as deep-seated basement structures that have tapped the internal heat of Mars, as conduits, for far greater time, possibly even today. This possibility is raised by the observation of putative open-system pingos and nearby gullies that occur in linear depressions with accompanying systems of faults and fractures. Long-term water and heat energy enrichment, complemented by the interaction of the nutrient-enriched primordial crustal and mantle materials favorable to life excavated to the surface and near-surface environs through the Argyre impact event, has not only resulted in distinct geomorphology, but also makes the Argyre basin a potential site of exceptional astrobiological significance. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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