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Gal-Mor O.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | Boyle E.C.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Grassl G.A.,University of Kiel | Grassl G.A.,Research Center Borstel
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Human infections by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica represent major disease burdens worldwide. This highly ubiquitous species consists of more than 2600 different serovars that can be divided into typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars. Despite their genetic similarity, these two groups elicit very different diseases and distinct immune responses in humans. Comparative analyses of the genomes of multiple Salmonella serovars have begun to explain the basis of the variation in disease manifestations. Recent advances in modeling both enteric fever and intestinal gastroenteritis in mice will facilitate investigation into both the bacterial- and host-mediated mechanisms involved in salmonelloses. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for differences in disease outcome will augment our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis, host immunity, and the molecular basis of host specificity. This review outlines the differences in epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and the human immune response to typhoidal and NTS infections and summarizes the current thinking on why these differences might exist. © 2014 Gal-Mor, Boyle and Grassl. Source


Aviv G.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | Aviv G.,Tel Aviv University | Tsyba K.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | Tsyba K.,Tel Aviv University | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Summary: Of all known Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Infantis is one of the most commonly isolated and has been recently emerging worldwide. To understand the recent emergence of S. Infantis in Israel, we performed extensive comparative analyses between pre-emergent and the clonal emergent S. Infantis populations. We demonstrate the fixation of adaptive mutations in the DNA gyrase (gyrA) and nitroreductase (nfsA) genes, conferring resistance to quinolones and nitrofurans, respectively, and the carriage of an emergent-specific plasmid, designated pESI. This self-transferred episome is a mosaic megaplasmid (~280kb), which increases bacterial tolerance to environmental mercury (mer operon) and oxidative stress, and provides further resistance to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, most likely due to the presence of tetRA, sulI and dfrA genes respectively. Moreover, pESI carries the yersiniabactin siderophore system and two novel chaperone-usher fimbriae. In vitro studies established that pESI conjugation into a plasmidless S. Infantis strain results in superior biofilm formation, adhesion and invasion into avian and mammalian host cells. In vivo mouse infections demonstrated higher pathogenicity and increased intestinal inflammation caused by an S. Infantis strain harboring pESI compared with the plasmidless parental strain. Our results indicate that the presence of pESI that was found only in the emergent population of S. Infantis in Israel contributes significantly to antimicrobials tolerance and pathogenicity of its carrier. It is highly likely that pESI plays a key role in the successful spread of the emergent clone that replaced the local S. Infantis community in the short time of only 2-3 years. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Suez J.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | Suez J.,Tel Aviv University | Porwollik S.,The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego | Dagan A.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Human infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) infrequently causes invasive systemic disease and bacteremia. To understand better the nature of invasive NTS (iNTS), we studied the gene content and the pathogenicity of bacteremic strains from twelve serovars (Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Choleraesuis, Dublin, Virchow, Newport, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:- and Hadar). Comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella enterica microarray revealed a core of 3233 genes present in all of the iNTS strains, which include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1-5, 9, 13, 14; five fimbrial operons (bcf, csg, stb, sth, sti); three colonization factors (misL, bapA, sinH); and the invasion gene, pagN. In the iNTS variable genome, we identified 16 novel genomic islets; various NTS virulence factors; and six typhoid-associated virulence genes (tcfA, cdtB, hlyE, taiA, STY1413, STY1360), displaying a wider distribution among NTS than was previously known. Characterization of the bacteremic strains in C3H/HeN mice showed clear differences in disease manifestation. Previously unreported characterization of serovars Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Bredeney and Virchow in the mouse model showed low ability to elicit systemic disease, but a profound and elongated shedding of serovars Schwarzengrund and 9,12:l,v:- (as well as Enteritidis and Heidelberg) due to chronic infection of the mouse. Phenotypic comparison in macrophages and epithelial cell lines demonstrated a remarkable intra-serovar variation, but also showed that S. Typhimurium bacteremic strains tend to present lower intracellular growth than gastroenteritis isolates. Collectively, our data demonstrated a common core of virulence genes, which might be required for invasive salmonellosis, but also an impressive degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, highlighting that bacteremia is a complex phenotype, which cannot be attributed merely to an enhanced invasion or intracellular growth of a particular strain. © 2013 Suez et al. Source


Elhadad D.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | Elhadad D.,Tel Aviv University | Desai P.,University of California at Irvine | Grassl G.A.,Hannover Medical School | And 5 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2016

Active invasion into nonphagocytic host cells is central to Salmonella enterica pathogenicity and dependent on multiple genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here, we explored the invasion phenotype and the expression of SPI-1 in the typhoidal serovar S. Paratyphi A compared to that of the nontyphoidal serovar S. Typhimurium. We demonstrate that while S. Typhimurium is equally invasive under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions, S. Paratyphi A invades only following growth under microaerobic conditions. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, and secretome analyses established that S. Paratyphi A expresses much lower levels of SPI-1 genes and secretes lesser amounts of SPI-1 effector proteins than S. Typhimurium, especially under aerobic growth. Bypassing the native SPI-1 regulation by inducible expression of the SPI-1 activator, HilA, considerably elevated SPI-1 gene expression, host cell invasion, disruption of epithelial integrity, and induction of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by S. Paratyphi A but not by S. Typhimurium, suggesting that SPI-1 expression is naturally downregulated in S. Paratyphi A. Using streptomycin-treated mice, we were able to establish substantial intestinal colonization by S. Paratyphi A and showed moderately higher pathology and intestinal inflammation in mice infected with S. Paratyphi A overexpressing hilA. Collectively, our results reveal unexpected differences in SPI-1 expression between S. Paratyphi A and S. Typhimurium, indicate that S. Paratyphi A host cell invasion is suppressed under aerobic conditions, and suggest that lower invasion in aerobic sites and suppressed expression of immunogenic SPI-1 components contributes to the restrained inflammatory infection elicited by S. Paratyphi A. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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