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San Francisco, CA, United States

Shore whaling along North America's California and Baja California coasts during 1854-99 was ancillary to the offshore and alongshore American whale fishery, which had begun in the North Pacific in the early 1800's and was flourishing by the 1840's. From its inception at Monterey, Calif, in the mid 1850's, the shore fishery, involving open boats deployed from land to catch and tow whales for processing, eventually spread from Monterey south to San Diego and Baja California and north to Crescent City near the California-Oregon border. It had declined to a relict industry by the 1880's, although sporadic efforts continued into the early 20th century. The main target species were gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, and humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, with the valuable North Pacific right whale, Eubalaena japonica, also pursued opportunistically. Catch data are grossly incomplete for most stations; no logbooks were kept for these operations as they were for high-seas whaling voyages. Even when good information is available on catch levels, usually as number of whales landed or quantity of oil produced, it is rarely broken down by species. Therefore, we devised methods for extrapolation, interpolation, pro rationing, correction, and informed judgment to produce time series of catches. The resulting estimates of landings from 1854 to 1899 are 3,150 (SE = 112) gray whales and 1,637 (SE = 62) humpback whales. The numbers landed should be multiplied by 1.2 to account for hunting loss (i.e. whales harpooned or shot but not recovered and processed).

Tinjod N.,The History Project
European Space Agency Bulletin | Year: 2015

The 40th anniversary of the signing of the Convention for the creation of a single European Space Agency (ESA) in May 1975 was celebrated in May 2015. The idea of building an independent space capability in Europe dated back to the early 1960s when six European countries, such as Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, formed the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO) to develop a heavy launcher, called 'Europa'. The ESA Convention, which broadened the scope of the new agency's remit to include operational space applications systems, was opened for signature until December 31, 1975. The ESA Convention entered into force on 30 October 1980, with the deposit of the last instrument of ratification by France, after being signed at the European Space Conference in Paris on 30 May 1975 by the representatives of the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and ELDO member States.

Xu J.,Shanghai University | Han N.,Shanghai University | Li Y.,The History Project
Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2010

The digital features of localized deformation of limestone are analyzed by using video images of uniaxial compression test. The original videos were record during the laboratory uniaxial compression test. The video images at loading stage were obtained by using load-time relation curves and converted into the video formats that can be recognized easily by computer. A particle image velocimetry(PIV) technique was used to compute the displacements of surface of limestone specimen in any time and in any location. The change history of tip displacement of the existing fissure was investigated; the processes of initiation and propagation of new fissures were also analyzed. The textural parameters of a single frame were selected as the digital features reflecting the deformation status of limestone. The change processes of these parameters with time were further investigated based on the grayscale histogram and grayscale co-occurrence matrix from video images. The results show that the phenomena of localized deformations of existing and new fissures are much obvious; the dividing point between stable and rapid deformation stages may be used to determinate the start point and to establish the initiate conditions for localized deformations; the textural parameters can reasonably reflect the change in the deformation status of the limestone under different loading stages and may be used to predict the initial time of localized deformations. Due to the reflection of image features on deformation/failure process of intact rocks or rock masses, the methods presented herein may provide a new research way of meso-scale mechanisms of the localized deformation and geological hazards in rock areas.

Wright D.,The History Project
Space Policy | Year: 2012

The UK government appears to be taking space more seriously, even if funding for the sector remains limited. Speeches and attendees at the conference confirm this trend, with a particular emphasis on innovation and a general sense that prospects for the UK space industry are good. The various themes and highlights of the conference are discussed. © 2012 .

Thorne J.H.,University of California at Davis | Santos M.J.,The History Project | Bjorkman J.H.,University of California at Davis
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km2 in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km2 (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km2 (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km2 of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km2 to 2239 km2 (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km2, under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. © 2013 Thorne et al.

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