Franklin, KY, United States
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Cabezon F.A.,Purdue University | Stewart K.R.,Purdue University | Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Barnes W.,The Hanor Company Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T) = 22, n (line L) = 10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T) = 21, n (line L) = 6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T) = 23, n (line L) = 7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68. g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P = 0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P = 0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P = 0.009) and tail (P = 0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P = 0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | The Hanor Company Inc., AB Vista and Purdue University
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet.


Wray-Cahen D.,Cornell University | Wray-Cahen D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Dunshea F.R.,Cornell University | Dunshea F.R.,University of Melbourne | And 5 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) treatment consistently improves growth performance and reduces fat deposition in pigs, and it is hypothesized that one component of the mechanism is through altering the sensitivity and/or responsiveness to insulin. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of pST treatment on whole-body glucose metabolism in response to varying doses of insulin. Eight barrows were surgically prepared with indwelling catheters and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (0 or 120 μg pST/kg BW · d) for 13 d. Whole-body glucose kinetics were measured during infusion of [6- 3H]-glucose under basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at various insulin infusion rates (7, 28, and 140, and 14, 70, and 280 ng insulin/kg BW · min) and alterations in the dose-response parameters were calculated with nonlinear regression. Treatment with pST increased basal plasma concentrations of glucose (36%; P = 0.005), insulin (276%; P = 0.001), and NEFAs (177%; P = 0.01) and decreased the rate of glucose disappearance (-59%; P = 0.001). The responsiveness (maximum response) for steady state glucose infusion rate to maintain glycemia was not altered by pST (112 vs 106 μmol/min · kg; P = 0.78), whereas the sensitivity (effective dose at 50% of maximum response) was increased almost 7-fold (1.3 vs 8.7 ng/mL; P = 0.027). Similar responses were observed for rate of glucose disappearance and insulin-dependent glucose utilization. Therefore, pST-induced insulin resistance with regard to whole-body glucose uptake is due to a reduced sensitivity to insulin, rather than a change in responsiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Jang Y.D.,University of Kentucky | Wilcock P.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients | Boyd R.D.,The Hanor Company | Lindemann M.D.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2016

Dietary xylanase (endo-1,4-β xylanase [Enzyme Commission number 3.2.1.8]) supplementation can improve energy digestibility in pigs; however, the effect of supplementation to a diet already containing phytase has not been clearly determined. A total of 25 barrows (76.5 ± 0.6 kg start weight) were allotted to 5 treatments to evaluate xylanase as follows: 1) a positive control (PC), a corn–soybean meal–based diet with 15% each of corn germ meal, corn dried distillers’ grains with solubles, and wheat middlings; 2) a negative control (NC), in which ME was reduced by 103 kcal/kg from the PC diet by fat replacement with starch; 3) NC + 8,000 xylanase units (BXU)/kg diet (NX1); 4) NC + 16,000 BXU/kg diet (NX2); and 5) NC + 24,000 BXU/kg diet (NX3). All diets were formulated to contain 250 phytase units of phytase/ kg diet. Feces and urine were collected for 5 consecu tive days after a 7-d adaptation period for determining apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention. There were no differences in ATTD of DM, GE, N, ADF, and P. However, the PC treatment had the greatest ATTD of ether extract (P < 0.05) among all groups. Energy retention in the PC treatment tended to be greater than that in the NC, NX1, and NX2 treatments but similar to that in the NX3 treatment (P = 0.09). In the comparison of xylanase effects, ATTD of hemicellulose linearly increased with increasing xylanase level (P < 0.05); a tendency for improvement in ATTD of NDF was observed at the 24,000 BXU/ kg level (linear, P = 0.15). These results demonstrate that xylanase supplementation to a high-fiber diet (19.8% NDF) also containing phytase can improve hemicellulose and perhaps NDF and digestibility and, thereby, energy utilization. © 2016 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Pompeu D.,University of Missouri | Wiegand B.R.,University of Missouri | Evans H.L.,University of Missouri | Rickard J.W.,University of Missouri | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

An experiment was performed to evaluate effects of dietary ractopamine, CLA, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth and carcass and fat quality of finishing pigs. This study was conducted as a split-split plot arrangement in a generalized randomized block design. In total 1,102 crossbred barrows and gilts (initial BW = 100.4 kg, SD = 3.7 kg; PIC 337 × C22) were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments that consisted of 2 diet sources [corn-soybean meal (corn-soy) and corn-soy + 20% DDGS], 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg), and 2 levels of CLA (0% and 0.6%). The pen was the experimental unit, with 6 replications per treatment for a total of 48 pens with 23 pigs per pen. Pigs had ad libitum access to water and feed during the 27-d experimental period. Ractopamine addition improved (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F over the control group. Furthermore, carcass weight, carcass yield, loin depth, and lean percentage were increased and back fat depth was decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding ractopamine. Feeding CLA resulted in improved (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F and increased lean percentage but reduced carcass yield (P < 0.05). The inclusion of DDGS did not affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F but reduced (P < 0.05) carcass dressing percent. An increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of PUFA was observed with inclusion of DDGS, ractopamine, and CLA. Iodine value (IV) increased (P < 0.001) in both belly and jowl samples by feeding DDGS and ractopamine, whereas a decrease (P < 0.01) was observed when CLA was included in the diets. The fatty acid profiles of belly and jowl fat samples were affected (P < 0.05) by diet source × ractopamine, indicating that effects of dietary ractopa-mine depend on the fatty acid profile of the diet. These results indicate that feeding ractopamine and CLA could improve growth and carcass measures and that CLA was effective in diminishing some of the negative effects, especially on IV, caused by DDGS. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science.


Cabrera R.A.,Pig Improvement Company | Cabrera R.A.,North Carolina State University | Cabrera R.A.,The Hanor Company | Boyd R.D.,Pig Improvement Company | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

A total of 1,034 pigs produced by breeding PIC sows to 2 different PIC terminal sires were used to create 3 distinct weaning weight populations so that postweaning growth to 125 kg could be studied. The rearing strategies resulted in BW that ranged from 4.1 to 11.5 kg by 20 d of age. Sows and corresponding litters were allocated to 3 treatments: sow reared (SR; n = 367) for 20 d, sow reared for 14 d (14W; n = 330), and sow reared for 2 d (2W; n = 337). Sows were removed from 2W and 14W groups, but progeny remained in the crates and received milk replacer ad libitum (for 18 and 6 d, respectively) until the contemporary SR pigs were weaned at 20 d of age. The SR pigs (6.49 ± 0.15 kg) weighed 1.01 kg less than 14W pigs (7.5 ± 0.14 kg) and 2.26 kg less than 2W pigs (8.75 ± 0.14 kg; P < 0.05). The 14W pigs weighed 1.25 kg less than 2W pigs (P < 0.05). Nursery ADG for the 2W group (547 g/d) was 35 g/d less (P < 0.05) than 14W pigs. The 14W pigs (165 d) required 3 fewer (P < 0.05) days to reach 125 kg of BW compared with SR pigs. The SR and 14W pigs gained BW 24 and 20 g/d faster (P < 0.05) in the postnursery period when compared with 2W pigs. The SR and 2W pigs consumed 0.10 and 0.12 kg/d less (P < 0.05) during this period when compared with 14W pigs (2.32 kg/d). Gaimfeed of SR was improved (P < 0.05) when compared with the 14W and 2W pigs over 167 d of age (0.44 vs. 0.42 and 0.42, respectively). Lean percentage was 0.7% greater (P < 0.05) in carcasses from SR pigs (55.0%) compared with carcasses from 2W pigs (54.3%) when adjusted to a constant HCW. A study of the effect of weaning weight on days to 125 kg was limited to SR and 14W groups because maternal deprivation compromised the 2W group postweaning growth. Six weaning-weight groups were defined using a normal distribution: 4.6, 5.5, 6.4, 7.3, 8.2, and 9.5 kg. Pigs weighing 5.5 kg at 20 d of age were able to reach 125 kg 8 d sooner (168.8 d) than those weighing 4.6 kg (176.8 d). There was a linear relationship (P < 0.05) between weaning weight and ADG in the postnursery phase of growth. We conclude that 1) a weaning weight of less than 5.0 kg imposes the greatest marginal loss in production output for a 20-d weaning and 2) lactation length influences long-term growth, composition of growth, and viability of progeny. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Rosero D.S.,The Hanor Company | Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | Boyd R.D.,The Hanor Company | Boyd R.D.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental essential fatty acids (EFA) on sow reproductive efficiency and to estimate the concentrations of EFA required by the lactating sow for maximum subsequent reproduction. Data were collected on 480 sows (PIC Camborough) balanced by parity, with 241 and 239 sows representing Parity 1, and 3-5 (P3+), respectively. Sows were assigned randomly, within parity, to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic (2.1%, 2.7%, and 3.3%) and α-linolenic acid (0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%), obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn and flaxseed oils to diets. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 12% wheat middlings. The benefits of supplemental EFA were more evident for the subsequent reproduction of mature P3+ sows. For these sows, supplemental α-linolenic acid improved the proportion of sows that farrowed relative to sows weaned (linear P = 0.080; 82.8, 80.5, and 92.8% for sows fed 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% α-linolenic acid, respectively). In addition, supplemental linoleic acid, fed to Parity 1 and P3+ sows, tended to increase subsequent litter size (linear P = 0.074; 13.2, 13.8 and 14.0 total pigs born for 2.1%, 2.7% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). These results demonstrate that a minimum dietary intake of both α-linolenic and linoleic acid is required for the modern lactating sow to achieve a maximum reproductive outcome through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, increased maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..


Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | Odle J.,North Carolina State University | Arellano C.,North Carolina State University | Boyd R.D.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Two studies were conducted 1) to determine the effects of free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and the degree of saturation of lipids (unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio [U:S]) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and DE content of lipids and 2) to derive prediction equations to estimate the DE content of lipids when added to lactating sow diets. In Exp. 1, 85 lactating sows were assigned randomly to a 4 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a control diet with no added lipid. Factors included 1) FFA concentrations of 0, 18, 36, and 54% and 2) U:S of 2.0, 2.8, 3.5, 4.2, and 4.9. Diets were corn–soybean meal based and lipid was supplemented at 6%. Concentrations of FFA and U:S were obtained by blending 4 lipid sources: choice white grease (CWG; FFA = 0.3% and U:S = 2.0), soybean oil (FFA = 0.1% and U:S = 5.5), CWG acid oil (FFA = 57.8% and U:S = 2.1), and soybean–cottonseed acid oil (FFA = 67.5% and U:S = 3.8). Titanium dioxide was added to diets (0.5%) as a digestibility marker. Treatments started on d 4 of lactation and fecal samples were collected after 6 d of adaptation to diets on a daily basis from d 10 to 13. The ATTD of added lipid and DE content of lipids were negatively affected (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing FFA concentrations, but negative effects were less pronounced with increasing U:S (interaction, P < 0.05). Coefficients of ATTD for the added lipid and DE content of lipids increased with increasing U:S (quadratic, P = 0.001), but these improvements were less pronounced when the FFA concentration was less than 36%. Digestible energy content of added lipid was described by DE (kcal/kg) = [8,381 –(80.6 × FFA) + (0.4 × FFA2) + (248.8 × U:S) –(28.1 × U:S2) + (12.8 × FFA × U:S)] (R2 = 0.74). This prediction equation was validated in Exp. 2, in which 24 lactating sows were fed diets supplemented with 6% of either an animal–vegetable blend (A-V; FFA = 14.5% and U:S = 2.3) or CWG (FFA = 3.7% and U:S = 1.5) plus a control diet with no added lipids. Digestible energy content of A-V (8,317 and 8,127 kcal/kg for measured and predicted values, respectively) and CWG (8,452 and 8,468 kcal/kg for measured and predicted values, respectively) were accurately estimated using the proposed equation. The proposed equation involving FFA concentration and U:S resulted in highly accurate estimations of DE content (relative error, +0.2 to –2.3%) of commercial sources of lipids for lactating sows. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | The Hanor Company and North Carolina State University
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Dietary lipid supplementation benefits the prolific and high-producing modern lactating sow. A comprehensive review of recent studies showed that lipid supplementation increases average daily energy intake, which is partitioned for lactation as indicated by greater milk fat output and improved litter growth rate. Recent compelling findings showed that addition of particular lipids during lactation improved the subsequent reproductive outcome of sows. Such benefits were related to the level of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA, linoleic acid, C18:2n-6; and -linolenic acid, C18:3n-3) during lactation. Lactation diets without supplemental EFA resulted in a pronounced negative balance (intake minus milk output) of linoleic (-25.49g/d) and -linolenic acid (-2.75g/d); which compromised sow fertility (farrowing rate<75% and culling rates>25% of weaned sows). This phenomenon seems to be increasingly important with advancing sow age because of a progressive reduction of body EFA pool over successive lactations. The net effect of supplemental EFA during lactation was to create a positive EFA balance, which improved the subsequent reproduction of sows. Adequate linoleic acid intake improved the proportion of sows that farrowed in the subsequent cycle (Farrowing rate (%)=[(-1.510(-3)linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2))+(0.53linoleic acid intake (g/d))+(45.2)]; quadratic P=0.002, R(2)=0.997, RMSE=0.031). In addition, increasing linoleic acid intake increased the number of pigs born in the subsequent cycle (total pigs born (n)=[(9.410(-5)linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2))+(0.04linoleic acid intake (g/d))+(10.94)]; quadratic P=0.002, R(2)=0.997, RMSE=0.031). Supplemental -linolenic acid resulted in a rapid return to estrus (sows bred: sows weaned=94.2%; wean-to-estrus interval=4.0 d) and achieved a high retention of pregnancy (sows pregnant: sows bred=98%). Collectively, we conclude that a minimum dietary intake of 10g/d of -linolenic acid, simultaneous with a minimum of 125g/d of linoleic acid should be provided to95% of the sows; thereby, achieving a maximum sow reproductive efficiency through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, high maintenance of pregnancy and large subsequent litter size in mature sows, that appear to be susceptible to EFA deficiency.


PubMed | The Hanor Company and North Carolina State University
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental essential fatty acids (EFA) on sow reproductive efficiency and to estimate the concentrations of EFA required by the lactating sow for maximum subsequent reproduction. Data were collected on 480 sows (PIC Camborough) balanced by parity, with 241 and 239 sows representing Parity 1, and 3-5 (P3+), respectively. Sows were assigned randomly, within parity, to a 3 3 factorial arrangement plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic (2.1%, 2.7%, and 3.3%) and -linolenic acid (0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%), obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn and flaxseed oils to diets. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 12% wheat middlings. The benefits of supplemental EFA were more evident for the subsequent reproduction of mature P3+ sows. For these sows, supplemental -linolenic acid improved the proportion of sows that farrowed relative to sows weaned (linear P=0.080; 82.8, 80.5, and 92.8% for sows fed 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% -linolenic acid, respectively). In addition, supplemental linoleic acid, fed to Parity 1 and P3+ sows, tended to increase subsequent litter size (linear P=0.074; 13.2, 13.8 and 14.0 total pigs born for 2.1%, 2.7% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). These results demonstrate that a minimum dietary intake of both -linolenic and linoleic acid is required for the modern lactating sow to achieve a maximum reproductive outcome through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, increased maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.

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