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Franklin, KY, United States

Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | Odle J.,North Carolina State University | Arellano C.,North Carolina State University | Boyd R.D.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science

Two studies were conducted 1) to determine the effects of free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and the degree of saturation of lipids (unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio [U:S]) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and DE content of lipids and 2) to derive prediction equations to estimate the DE content of lipids when added to lactating sow diets. In Exp. 1, 85 lactating sows were assigned randomly to a 4 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a control diet with no added lipid. Factors included 1) FFA concentrations of 0, 18, 36, and 54% and 2) U:S of 2.0, 2.8, 3.5, 4.2, and 4.9. Diets were corn–soybean meal based and lipid was supplemented at 6%. Concentrations of FFA and U:S were obtained by blending 4 lipid sources: choice white grease (CWG; FFA = 0.3% and U:S = 2.0), soybean oil (FFA = 0.1% and U:S = 5.5), CWG acid oil (FFA = 57.8% and U:S = 2.1), and soybean–cottonseed acid oil (FFA = 67.5% and U:S = 3.8). Titanium dioxide was added to diets (0.5%) as a digestibility marker. Treatments started on d 4 of lactation and fecal samples were collected after 6 d of adaptation to diets on a daily basis from d 10 to 13. The ATTD of added lipid and DE content of lipids were negatively affected (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing FFA concentrations, but negative effects were less pronounced with increasing U:S (interaction, P < 0.05). Coefficients of ATTD for the added lipid and DE content of lipids increased with increasing U:S (quadratic, P = 0.001), but these improvements were less pronounced when the FFA concentration was less than 36%. Digestible energy content of added lipid was described by DE (kcal/kg) = [8,381 –(80.6 × FFA) + (0.4 × FFA2) + (248.8 × U:S) –(28.1 × U:S2) + (12.8 × FFA × U:S)] (R2 = 0.74). This prediction equation was validated in Exp. 2, in which 24 lactating sows were fed diets supplemented with 6% of either an animal–vegetable blend (A-V; FFA = 14.5% and U:S = 2.3) or CWG (FFA = 3.7% and U:S = 1.5) plus a control diet with no added lipids. Digestible energy content of A-V (8,317 and 8,127 kcal/kg for measured and predicted values, respectively) and CWG (8,452 and 8,468 kcal/kg for measured and predicted values, respectively) were accurately estimated using the proposed equation. The proposed equation involving FFA concentration and U:S resulted in highly accurate estimations of DE content (relative error, +0.2 to –2.3%) of commercial sources of lipids for lactating sows. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | Odle J.,North Carolina State University | Mendoza S.M.,North Carolina State University | Boyd R.D.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science

Two studies were designed to determine the effects of supplementing diets with lipid sources of EFA (linoleic and α -linolenic acid) on sow milk composition to estimate the balance of EFA for sows nursing large litters. In Exp. 1, 30 sows, equally balanced by parity (1 and 3 to 5) and nursing 12 pigs, were fed diets supplemented with 6% animal-vegetable blend (A-V), 6% choice white grease (CWG), or a control diet without added lipid. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 8% corn distiller dried grains with solubles and 6% wheat middlings and contained 3.25 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows fed lipid-supplemented diets secreted greater amounts of fat (P = 0.082; 499 and 559 g/d for control and lipid-added diets, respectively) than sows fed the control diet. The balance of EFA was computed as apparent ileal digestible intake of EFA minus the outflow of EFA in milk. For sows fed the control diet, the amount of linoleic acid secreted in milk was greater than the amount consumed, throughout lactation. This resulted in a pronounced negative balance of linoleic acid (-22.4, -38.0, and -14.1 g/d for d 3, 10, and 17 of lactation, respectively). In Exp. 2, 50 sows, equally balanced by parity and nursing 12 pigs, were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic acid (2.1% and 3.3%) and α -linolenic acid (0.15% and 0.45%). The different concentrations of EFA were obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn, and flaxseed oils to diets. The n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios in the diets ranged from 5 to 22. Increasing supplemental EFA increased (P < 0.001) milk concentrations of linoleic (16.7% and 20.8%, for 2.1% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively) and α -linolenic acid (P < 0.001; 1.1 and 1.9% for 0.15 and 0.45% α-linolenic acid, respectively). Increasing supplemental EFA increased the estimated balance of α -linolenic acid (P < 0.001; -0.2 and 5.3 g/d for 0.15% and 0.45% α -linolenic acid, respectively), but not linoleic acid (P = 0.14; -3.4 and 10.0 g/d for 2.1% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). In conclusion, lipid supplementation to sow lactation diets improved milk fat secretion. The fatty acid composition of milk fat reflected the dietary supplementation of EFA. The net effect of supplemental EFA was to create a positive balance during lactation, which may prove to be beneficial for the development of nursing piglets and the subsequent reproduction of sows. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Cabezon F.A.,Purdue University | Stewart K.R.,Purdue University | Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Barnes W.,The Hanor Company | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science

This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T) = 22, n (line L) = 10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T) = 21, n (line L) = 6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T) = 23, n (line L) = 7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68. g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P = 0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P = 0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P = 0.009) and tail (P = 0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P = 0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lawlor M.R.,Purdue University | Craig B.A.,Purdue University | Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Einstein M.E.,Purdue University | And 10 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist

Barrows (n = 2,178) and gilts (n = 2,274) were fed either high-energy or low-energy diets from 27 kg of BW to target BW of 118, 127, 131.5, and 140.6 kg over 12 monthly replicates. Carcass primal cut and subprimal cut weights as well as optical probe backfat and loin depth measurements were collected on each pig. The cut weights and carcass measurements for each pig were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A . CWB) of carcass weight (CW), where A is a scalar parameter and B is the allometric coefficient. The final models were weight or measurement = random effect of replicate + (1+bDD).(A.CWB) + error, where bD is the regression coefficient, D (diet) = -0.5 for the low-energy and 0.5 for high-energy diets, and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. Linear regressions of backfat and loin depth residuals from the model were included at P <0.05 to the cut weight equations but had little effect to reduce the residual variance. The residuals among the primal and subprimal cuts were correlated, and a Cholesky decomposition procedure was used on the variance-covariance matrix of the residuals. By using these procedures, a stochastic model can be used to evaluate the effect of alternative management, marketing, and carcass sorting strategies on the mean and distribution of pork primal and subprimal cut weights to increase pork processor profitability. © 2013 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Source

Wray-Cahen D.,Cornell University | Wray-Cahen D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Dunshea F.R.,Cornell University | Dunshea F.R.,University of Melbourne | And 5 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology

Exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) treatment consistently improves growth performance and reduces fat deposition in pigs, and it is hypothesized that one component of the mechanism is through altering the sensitivity and/or responsiveness to insulin. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of pST treatment on whole-body glucose metabolism in response to varying doses of insulin. Eight barrows were surgically prepared with indwelling catheters and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (0 or 120 μg pST/kg BW · d) for 13 d. Whole-body glucose kinetics were measured during infusion of [6- 3H]-glucose under basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at various insulin infusion rates (7, 28, and 140, and 14, 70, and 280 ng insulin/kg BW · min) and alterations in the dose-response parameters were calculated with nonlinear regression. Treatment with pST increased basal plasma concentrations of glucose (36%; P = 0.005), insulin (276%; P = 0.001), and NEFAs (177%; P = 0.01) and decreased the rate of glucose disappearance (-59%; P = 0.001). The responsiveness (maximum response) for steady state glucose infusion rate to maintain glycemia was not altered by pST (112 vs 106 μmol/min · kg; P = 0.78), whereas the sensitivity (effective dose at 50% of maximum response) was increased almost 7-fold (1.3 vs 8.7 ng/mL; P = 0.027). Similar responses were observed for rate of glucose disappearance and insulin-dependent glucose utilization. Therefore, pST-induced insulin resistance with regard to whole-body glucose uptake is due to a reduced sensitivity to insulin, rather than a change in responsiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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