The Hanor Company

Franklin, KY, United States

The Hanor Company

Franklin, KY, United States
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Odle J.,North Carolina State University | Jacobi S.K.,Ohio State University | Dean Boyd R.,North Carolina State University | Dean Boyd R.,The Hanor Company | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Nutrition | Year: 2017

High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low- income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1) preconception, 2) gestation and pregnancy, 3) lactation and suckling, and 4) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations in global maternal and child health. © 2017. American Society for Nutrition.


Acosta J.A.,Iowa State University | Boyd R.D.,The Hanor Company | Patience J.F.,Iowa State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2017

Rising feed expenditures demand that our industry pursues strategies to lower the cost of production. One option is the adoption of the NE system, although many producers are hesitant to proceed without proof that NE estimates are reliable. The objective of this experiment was to compare the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients and the N retention (NR) of diets formulated using the NE system with increasing quantities of coproduct ingredients. The 5 dietary treatments included a control corn–soybean meal diet (CTL); the CTL plus 6% each of corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, and wheat middlings and NE equal to the CTL by adding soybean oil (CONS-18); the CONS-18 diet, without oil added, with NE content lower than the CTL (DECL-18); the CTL plus 12% each of corn DDGS, corn germ meal, and wheat middlings and NE equal to the CTL by adding soybean oil (CONS-36); and the CONS-36 diet, without oil added, with NE content lower than the CTL (DECL-36). Diets were formulated for both the growing period (GP; 40 to 70 kg) and the finishing period (FP; 70 to 110 kg). Forty gilts (PIC 337 × C22 or C29; 38.5 ± 0.4 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to treatment and received feed and water ad libitum (8 pigs per treat-ment). For the last 13 d of the GP and FP, pigs were transferred to metabolism crates, where 2 total urine and fecal collections (d 4 to 6 and d 11 to 13) were performed. The GP fed diets with coproduct ingredients had lower ATTD of DM, N, and GE than those fed the CTL (P < 0.050). The ATTD of N and GE progressively decreased as coproduct inclusion increased from 0 to 18 to 36% in the FP (P < 0.010). In the GP and FP, there were no differences in ATTD of DM, N, or GE between CONS-18 and DECL-18 or between CONS-36 and DECL-36 (P > 0.050). The NR declined on all coproduct diets in the GP (P = 0.010) and tended to decline in the FP (P = 0.079). There were no differences in NR between CONS-18 and DECL-18 or between CONS-36 and DECL-36 (P > 0.050). In conclusion, digestion of diets containing up to 36% coproducts and formulated using NE resulted in expected DE and ME values; NR of diets with coproducts was lower than that of the simple CTL, which is not related to the accuracy of the energy estimations but rather to other factors such as imbalances in the AA concentrations or to postabsorptive energy metabolism, factors not accounted for by the current energy systems approach. © 2017 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Cabezon F.A.,Purdue University | Stewart K.R.,Purdue University | Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Barnes W.,The Hanor Company Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T) = 22, n (line L) = 10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T) = 21, n (line L) = 6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T) = 23, n (line L) = 7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68. g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P = 0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P = 0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P = 0.009) and tail (P = 0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P = 0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | The Hanor Company Inc., AB Vista and Purdue University
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet.


Wray-Cahen D.,Cornell University | Wray-Cahen D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Dunshea F.R.,Cornell University | Dunshea F.R.,University of Melbourne | And 5 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) treatment consistently improves growth performance and reduces fat deposition in pigs, and it is hypothesized that one component of the mechanism is through altering the sensitivity and/or responsiveness to insulin. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of pST treatment on whole-body glucose metabolism in response to varying doses of insulin. Eight barrows were surgically prepared with indwelling catheters and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (0 or 120 μg pST/kg BW · d) for 13 d. Whole-body glucose kinetics were measured during infusion of [6- 3H]-glucose under basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at various insulin infusion rates (7, 28, and 140, and 14, 70, and 280 ng insulin/kg BW · min) and alterations in the dose-response parameters were calculated with nonlinear regression. Treatment with pST increased basal plasma concentrations of glucose (36%; P = 0.005), insulin (276%; P = 0.001), and NEFAs (177%; P = 0.01) and decreased the rate of glucose disappearance (-59%; P = 0.001). The responsiveness (maximum response) for steady state glucose infusion rate to maintain glycemia was not altered by pST (112 vs 106 μmol/min · kg; P = 0.78), whereas the sensitivity (effective dose at 50% of maximum response) was increased almost 7-fold (1.3 vs 8.7 ng/mL; P = 0.027). Similar responses were observed for rate of glucose disappearance and insulin-dependent glucose utilization. Therefore, pST-induced insulin resistance with regard to whole-body glucose uptake is due to a reduced sensitivity to insulin, rather than a change in responsiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Jang Y.D.,University of Kentucky | Wilcock P.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients | Boyd R.D.,The Hanor Company | Lindemann M.D.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2016

Dietary xylanase (endo-1,4-β xylanase [Enzyme Commission number 3.2.1.8]) supplementation can improve energy digestibility in pigs; however, the effect of supplementation to a diet already containing phytase has not been clearly determined. A total of 25 barrows (76.5 ± 0.6 kg start weight) were allotted to 5 treatments to evaluate xylanase as follows: 1) a positive control (PC), a corn–soybean meal–based diet with 15% each of corn germ meal, corn dried distillers’ grains with solubles, and wheat middlings; 2) a negative control (NC), in which ME was reduced by 103 kcal/kg from the PC diet by fat replacement with starch; 3) NC + 8,000 xylanase units (BXU)/kg diet (NX1); 4) NC + 16,000 BXU/kg diet (NX2); and 5) NC + 24,000 BXU/kg diet (NX3). All diets were formulated to contain 250 phytase units of phytase/ kg diet. Feces and urine were collected for 5 consecu tive days after a 7-d adaptation period for determining apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention. There were no differences in ATTD of DM, GE, N, ADF, and P. However, the PC treatment had the greatest ATTD of ether extract (P < 0.05) among all groups. Energy retention in the PC treatment tended to be greater than that in the NC, NX1, and NX2 treatments but similar to that in the NX3 treatment (P = 0.09). In the comparison of xylanase effects, ATTD of hemicellulose linearly increased with increasing xylanase level (P < 0.05); a tendency for improvement in ATTD of NDF was observed at the 24,000 BXU/ kg level (linear, P = 0.15). These results demonstrate that xylanase supplementation to a high-fiber diet (19.8% NDF) also containing phytase can improve hemicellulose and perhaps NDF and digestibility and, thereby, energy utilization. © 2016 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Cabrera R.A.,Pig Improvement Company | Cabrera R.A.,North Carolina State University | Cabrera R.A.,The Hanor Company | Boyd R.D.,Pig Improvement Company | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

A total of 1,034 pigs produced by breeding PIC sows to 2 different PIC terminal sires were used to create 3 distinct weaning weight populations so that postweaning growth to 125 kg could be studied. The rearing strategies resulted in BW that ranged from 4.1 to 11.5 kg by 20 d of age. Sows and corresponding litters were allocated to 3 treatments: sow reared (SR; n = 367) for 20 d, sow reared for 14 d (14W; n = 330), and sow reared for 2 d (2W; n = 337). Sows were removed from 2W and 14W groups, but progeny remained in the crates and received milk replacer ad libitum (for 18 and 6 d, respectively) until the contemporary SR pigs were weaned at 20 d of age. The SR pigs (6.49 ± 0.15 kg) weighed 1.01 kg less than 14W pigs (7.5 ± 0.14 kg) and 2.26 kg less than 2W pigs (8.75 ± 0.14 kg; P < 0.05). The 14W pigs weighed 1.25 kg less than 2W pigs (P < 0.05). Nursery ADG for the 2W group (547 g/d) was 35 g/d less (P < 0.05) than 14W pigs. The 14W pigs (165 d) required 3 fewer (P < 0.05) days to reach 125 kg of BW compared with SR pigs. The SR and 14W pigs gained BW 24 and 20 g/d faster (P < 0.05) in the postnursery period when compared with 2W pigs. The SR and 2W pigs consumed 0.10 and 0.12 kg/d less (P < 0.05) during this period when compared with 14W pigs (2.32 kg/d). Gaimfeed of SR was improved (P < 0.05) when compared with the 14W and 2W pigs over 167 d of age (0.44 vs. 0.42 and 0.42, respectively). Lean percentage was 0.7% greater (P < 0.05) in carcasses from SR pigs (55.0%) compared with carcasses from 2W pigs (54.3%) when adjusted to a constant HCW. A study of the effect of weaning weight on days to 125 kg was limited to SR and 14W groups because maternal deprivation compromised the 2W group postweaning growth. Six weaning-weight groups were defined using a normal distribution: 4.6, 5.5, 6.4, 7.3, 8.2, and 9.5 kg. Pigs weighing 5.5 kg at 20 d of age were able to reach 125 kg 8 d sooner (168.8 d) than those weighing 4.6 kg (176.8 d). There was a linear relationship (P < 0.05) between weaning weight and ADG in the postnursery phase of growth. We conclude that 1) a weaning weight of less than 5.0 kg imposes the greatest marginal loss in production output for a 20-d weaning and 2) lactation length influences long-term growth, composition of growth, and viability of progeny. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Rosero D.S.,The Hanor Company | Rosero D.S.,North Carolina State University | Boyd R.D.,The Hanor Company | Boyd R.D.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental essential fatty acids (EFA) on sow reproductive efficiency and to estimate the concentrations of EFA required by the lactating sow for maximum subsequent reproduction. Data were collected on 480 sows (PIC Camborough) balanced by parity, with 241 and 239 sows representing Parity 1, and 3-5 (P3+), respectively. Sows were assigned randomly, within parity, to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic (2.1%, 2.7%, and 3.3%) and α-linolenic acid (0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%), obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn and flaxseed oils to diets. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 12% wheat middlings. The benefits of supplemental EFA were more evident for the subsequent reproduction of mature P3+ sows. For these sows, supplemental α-linolenic acid improved the proportion of sows that farrowed relative to sows weaned (linear P = 0.080; 82.8, 80.5, and 92.8% for sows fed 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% α-linolenic acid, respectively). In addition, supplemental linoleic acid, fed to Parity 1 and P3+ sows, tended to increase subsequent litter size (linear P = 0.074; 13.2, 13.8 and 14.0 total pigs born for 2.1%, 2.7% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). These results demonstrate that a minimum dietary intake of both α-linolenic and linoleic acid is required for the modern lactating sow to achieve a maximum reproductive outcome through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, increased maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..


PubMed | The Hanor Company and North Carolina State University
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Dietary lipid supplementation benefits the prolific and high-producing modern lactating sow. A comprehensive review of recent studies showed that lipid supplementation increases average daily energy intake, which is partitioned for lactation as indicated by greater milk fat output and improved litter growth rate. Recent compelling findings showed that addition of particular lipids during lactation improved the subsequent reproductive outcome of sows. Such benefits were related to the level of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA, linoleic acid, C18:2n-6; and -linolenic acid, C18:3n-3) during lactation. Lactation diets without supplemental EFA resulted in a pronounced negative balance (intake minus milk output) of linoleic (-25.49g/d) and -linolenic acid (-2.75g/d); which compromised sow fertility (farrowing rate<75% and culling rates>25% of weaned sows). This phenomenon seems to be increasingly important with advancing sow age because of a progressive reduction of body EFA pool over successive lactations. The net effect of supplemental EFA during lactation was to create a positive EFA balance, which improved the subsequent reproduction of sows. Adequate linoleic acid intake improved the proportion of sows that farrowed in the subsequent cycle (Farrowing rate (%)=[(-1.510(-3)linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2))+(0.53linoleic acid intake (g/d))+(45.2)]; quadratic P=0.002, R(2)=0.997, RMSE=0.031). In addition, increasing linoleic acid intake increased the number of pigs born in the subsequent cycle (total pigs born (n)=[(9.410(-5)linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2))+(0.04linoleic acid intake (g/d))+(10.94)]; quadratic P=0.002, R(2)=0.997, RMSE=0.031). Supplemental -linolenic acid resulted in a rapid return to estrus (sows bred: sows weaned=94.2%; wean-to-estrus interval=4.0 d) and achieved a high retention of pregnancy (sows pregnant: sows bred=98%). Collectively, we conclude that a minimum dietary intake of 10g/d of -linolenic acid, simultaneous with a minimum of 125g/d of linoleic acid should be provided to95% of the sows; thereby, achieving a maximum sow reproductive efficiency through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, high maintenance of pregnancy and large subsequent litter size in mature sows, that appear to be susceptible to EFA deficiency.


PubMed | The Hanor Company and North Carolina State University
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental essential fatty acids (EFA) on sow reproductive efficiency and to estimate the concentrations of EFA required by the lactating sow for maximum subsequent reproduction. Data were collected on 480 sows (PIC Camborough) balanced by parity, with 241 and 239 sows representing Parity 1, and 3-5 (P3+), respectively. Sows were assigned randomly, within parity, to a 3 3 factorial arrangement plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic (2.1%, 2.7%, and 3.3%) and -linolenic acid (0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%), obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn and flaxseed oils to diets. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 12% wheat middlings. The benefits of supplemental EFA were more evident for the subsequent reproduction of mature P3+ sows. For these sows, supplemental -linolenic acid improved the proportion of sows that farrowed relative to sows weaned (linear P=0.080; 82.8, 80.5, and 92.8% for sows fed 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% -linolenic acid, respectively). In addition, supplemental linoleic acid, fed to Parity 1 and P3+ sows, tended to increase subsequent litter size (linear P=0.074; 13.2, 13.8 and 14.0 total pigs born for 2.1%, 2.7% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). These results demonstrate that a minimum dietary intake of both -linolenic and linoleic acid is required for the modern lactating sow to achieve a maximum reproductive outcome through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, increased maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.

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