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Patel S.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Shaikh F.,University of Macau | Devaraji V.,Schrodinger | Radadiya A.,Saurashtra University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics | Year: 2016

Transient interactions between cancer stem cells and components of the tumor microenvironment initiate various signaling pathways crucial for carcinogenesis. Predominant hyaluronan (HA) receptor, CD44 is structurally and functionally one of the most variable cell surface receptors having the potential to generate a diverse repertory of CD44 isoforms by alternative splicing of variant exons and post-translational modifications. A structurally distinctive variant of CD44, CD44v10, has an inevitable role in malignant progression, invasion, and metastasis. This can be attributed to the binding of HA with CD44v10, which demonstrates a completely different behavioral pattern as compared to the other spliced variants of CD44 molecule. Absence of a comprehensively predicted crystal structure of human CD44s and CD44v10 is an impediment in understanding the resultant structural alterations caused by the binding of HA. Thus, in this study, we aim to predict the CD44s and CD44v10 structures to their closest native confirmation and study the HA binding-induced structural perturbations using homology modeling, molecular docking, and MD simulation approach. The results depicted that modeled 3D structures of CD44s and CD44v10 isoforms were found to be stable throughout MD simulations; however, a substantial decrease was observed in the binding affinity of HA with CD44v10 (−5.355 kcal/mol) as compared to CD44s. Furthermore, loss and gain of several H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions in CD44v10–HA complex during the simulation process not only elucidated the reason for decreased binding affinity for HA but also prompted toward the plausible role of HA-induced structural perturbations in occurrence and progression of carcinogenesis. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source

Vajaria B.N.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Patel K.R.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Begum R.,M. S. University of Baroda | Patel P.S.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2015

Tumorigenesis and metastasis are frequently associated with altered structure and expression of oligosaccharides on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. The expression of sialylated glycoconjugates has been shown to change during development, differentiation, disease and oncogenic transformation. Abnormal sialylation in cancer cell is a distinctive feature associated with malignant properties including invasiveness and metastatic potential. The alterations in sialylation is accompanied by changes in sialic acid, sialidase activity, sialyltransferase (ST) activity or sialoproteins. The present review summarizes the reports on alterations of sialic acid, linkage specific STs and sialoproteins, sialidase activity together with different subtypes of ST and sialidases mRNA expressions in various cancers like lung, breast, oral, cervical, ovarian, pancreatic etc. Sialic acids are widely distributed in nature as terminal sugars of oligosaccharides attached to proteins or lipids. The increase shedding of sialic acid observed in malignant tumors may be due to different types of sialidases. The amount of sialic acid is governed by levels of sialidases and STs. Various types of STs are also involved in formation of different types sialylated tumor associated carbohydrate antigens which plays important role in metastasis. The alterations associated with sialylation aids in early diagnosis, prognosis and post treatment monitoring in various cancers. Recently newer drugs targeting different interplays of sialylation have been developed, which might have profound effect in inhibiting sialylation and thus cancer metastasis and infiltration. © 2015 Arányi Lajos Foundation Source

Patel K.R.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Vajaria B.N.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Begum R.,M. S. University of Baroda | Patel J.B.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2015

Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and prognostication. A key angiogenesis stimulator is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The present investigation aimed to study contribution of VEGFA isoforms in oral cancer progression. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were employed to analyze tissue VEGFA isoforms and serum VEGF levels, respectively, in 109 oral cancer cases and 50 controls. VEGF183 and VEGF165 were significantly downregulated in malignant tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. VEGF183 and VEGF189 were significantly associated with tumor differentiation and tumor size. VEGF165 was significantly higher in recurrent early stage tumors. Serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in cases as compared to the controls and were associated with tumor differentiation. Serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients with recurrent advanced stage tumors. Further, patients with high levels of VEGF165 and serum VEGF levels had the worst prognosis. VEGFA isoform status and serum VEGF levels play a significant role in the progression as well as prognosis of oral cancer. © 2015, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source

Shah K.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Mirza S.,Gujarat University | Desai U.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Jain N.,Gujarat University | Rawal R.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Background: The aim of the study was to find a role of Curcumin from natural source to overcome drug resistance as well as to reduce cytotoxicity profile of the drug in Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients. Material and Methods: Primary leukemic cells were obtained from AML patient’s bone marrow. These cells were then exposed to different concentration of cytarabine and curcumin to find out IC50 values and also its effect on MDR genes like MDR1, BCRP, LRP and FLT3 by RT-PCR method. Result & Conclusion: Our results suggested that curcumin down regulates MDR genes. Gene expression was decreased by 35.75, 31.30, 27.97 % for MDR1, LRP, BCRP respectively. In FLT3, it was 65.86 % for wild type and 31.79 % for FLT3-ITD. In addition to this, curcumin has also shown anti-proliferative effect as well as synergistic effect in combination with Cytarabine on primary leukemic cells. Thus, we can conclude that curcumin can be used as MDR modulator as well as chemosensitizer in combination with cytarabine, standard chemotherapeutic drug, to reduce the cytotoxicity profile as IC50 value decreases when treated in combination. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Brahmbhatt M.M.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Trivedi P.J.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Patel D.M.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Shukla S.N.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute | Patel P.S.,The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion | Year: 2014

The BCR/ABL gene rearrangement is cytogenetically visualized in most chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases. About 5–10 % of CML patients lack its cytogenetic evidence, however, shows BCR/ABL fusion by molecular methods. We describe two CML patients with Philadelphia (Ph) negative (−ve) and BCR/ABL positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Both the cases were in chronic phase at diagnosis. Conventional cytogenetics and different FISH assays were adopted using BCR/ABL probes. Home-brew FISH assay using bacterial artificial clone (BAC) for BAC-CTA/bk 299D3 for chromosomal region 22q13.31-q13.32 was performed in case 1. Both the patients were Ph-ve. In first case, dual color dual fusion (DCDF)-FISH studies revealed 1 Red (R) 2 Green (G) 1 Fusion (F) signal pattern in 80 % of cells indicating BCR/ABL fusion signals on chromosomes 9 instead of Ph and 2G2F signal pattern in 20 % of cells indicating two BCR/ABL fusions on both chromosomes 9q34 on presentation. In second case, FISH studies revealed the 1R1G1F signal pattern indicating BCR/ABL fusion signals on chromosomes 9 instead of Ph in 100 % of cells at presentation. During follow-up, both the patients exhibited 2G2F signal pattern indicating two BCR/ABL fusions on both chromosomes 9q34, which indicated a clonal evolution in 100 % cells. Both the patients did not achieve therapeutic response. Relocation of BCR/ABL fusion sequence on sites other than 22q11 represents a rare type of variant Ph, the present study highlights the hot spots involved in CML pathogenesis and signifies their implications in Ph−ve BCR/ABL positive CML. This study demonstrated the genetic heterogeneity of this subgroup of CML and strongly emphasized the role of metaphase FISH, especially in Ph−ve CML cases, as it detects variations of the classical t(9;22). © 2014, Indian Society of Haematology & Transfusion Medicine. Source

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