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Wang H.,Peking University | Wang H.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis on Dermatoses | Wang H.,Peking Tsinghua Center for Life science | Cao X.,Peking University | And 28 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Keratoderma-hypotrichosis-leukonychia totalis syndrome (KHLS) is an extremely rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by severe skin hyperkeratosis, congenital alopecia and leukonychia totalis. The genetic defect underlying KHLS remained undetermined. By performing whole-exome sequencing in a family with KHLS, we identified a heterozygous mutation (c.23G>T [p.Gly8Val]) in GJA1, which cosegregated with the phenotype in the family. In an additional affected individual, we also found the identical de novo mutation which was absent in his unaffected family members. GJA1 encodes a gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) which is ubiquitously expressed in various organs, including the epidermis and hair follicles. In vitro studies on HEK293 cells expressing Cx43Gly8Val found that the protein formed gap junction plaques between adjacent transfected cells, as observed in the wild-type. Dye-transfer experiments by microinjection of Lucifer yellow displayed functional gap junction of the Cx43Gly8Val mutant. Using patch clamp and Ca2+ imaging methods, we observed that the Cx43Gly8Val hemichannel had significantly more openings than Cx43WT, facilitating Ca2+ influx at resting potential. Such gain-of-function effect might result in cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload, accelerated apoptosis of keratinocytes and subsequent skin hyperkeratosis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that, with probably enhanced hemichannel activities, a mutation in GJA1 is linked to KHLS without extracutaneous involvement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Li W.,BGI Shenzhen | Li W.,South China University of Technology | Zeng X.,BGI Shenzhen | Lee N.P.,University of Hong Kong | And 17 more authors.
Genomics | Year: 2013

We reported HIVID (high-throughput Viral Integration Detection), a novel experimental and computational method to detect the location of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) integration breakpoints in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) genome. In this method, the fragments with HBV sequence were enriched by a set of HBV probes and then processed to high-throughput sequencing. In order to evaluate the performance of HIVID, we compared the results of HIVID with that of whole genome sequencing method (WGS) in 28 HCC tumors. We detected a total of 246 HBV integration breakpoints in HCC genome, 113 out of which were within 400. bp upstream or downstream of 125 breakpoints identified by WGS method, covering 89.3% (125/140) of total breakpoints. The integration was located in the gene TERT, MLL4, and CCNE1. In addition, we discovered 133 novel breakpoints missed by WGS method, with 66.7% (10/15) of validation rate. Our study shows HIVID is a cost-effective methodology with high specificity and sensitivity to identify viral integration in human genome. © 2013. Source


Guo Y.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Menezes M.J.,Genetic Metabolic Disorders Research Unit | Menezes M.J.,University of Sydney | Menezes M.P.,University of Sydney | And 25 more authors.
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2015

Clinical phenotypes of congenital myasthenic syndromes and primary mitochondrial disorders share significant overlap in their clinical presentations, leading to challenges in making the correct diagnosis. Next generation sequencing is transforming molecular diagnosis of inherited neuromuscular disorders by identifying novel disease genes and by identifying previously known genes in undiagnosed patients. This is evident in two patients who were initially suspected to have a mitochondrial myopathy, but in whom a clear diagnosis of congenital myasthenic syndromes was made through whole exome sequencing. In patient 1, whole exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations c.1228C > T (p.Arg410Trp) and c.679C > T (p.Arg227*) in collagen-like tail subunit (single strand of homotrimer) of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase (. COLQ). In patient 2, in whom a deletion of exon 52 in Dystrophin gene was previously detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, Sanger sequencing revealed an additional homozygous mutation c.1511_1513delCTT (p.Pro504Argfs*183) in docking protein7 (DOK7). These case reports highlight the need for careful diagnosis of clinically heterogeneous syndromes like congenital myasthenic syndromes, which are treatable, and for which delayed diagnosis is likely to have implications for patient health. The report also demonstrates that whole exome sequencing is an effective diagnostic tool in providing molecular diagnosis in patients with complex phenotypes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Almoguera B.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | He S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Corton M.,Fundacion Jimenez Diaz University Hospital | Fernandez-San Jose P.,Fundacion Jimenez Diaz University Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Orphanet journal of rare diseases | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) I deficiency is a rare medical condition caused by missense mutations in PRPS1 that lead to three different phenotypes: Arts Syndrome (MIM 301835), X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX5, MIM 311070) or X-linked non-syndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2, MIM 304500). All three are X-linked recessively inherited and males affected display variable degree of central and peripheral neuropathy. We applied whole exome sequencing to a three-generation family with optic atrophy followed by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in all three cases, and ataxia, progressive peripheral neuropathy and hearing loss with variable presentation.METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in two affecteds and one unaffected member of the family. Sanger sequencing was used to validate and segregate the 12 candidate mutations in the family and to confirm the absence of the novel variant in PRPS1 in 191 controls. The pathogenic role of the novel mutation in PRPS1 was assessed in silico and confirmed by enzymatic determination of PRS activity, mRNA expression and sequencing, and X-chromosome inactivation.RESULTS: A novel missense mutation was identified in PRPS1 in the affected females. Age of onset, presentation and severity of the phenotype are highly variable in the family: both the proband and her mother have neurological and ophthalmological symptoms, whereas the phenotype of the affected sister is milder and currently confined to the eye. Moreover, only the proband displayed a complete lack of expression of the wild type allele in leukocytes that seems to correlate with the degree of PRS deficiency and the severity of the phenotype. Interestingly, optic atrophy and RP are the only common manifestations to all three females and the only phenotype correlating with the degree of enzyme deficiency.CONCLUSIONS: These results are in line with recent evidence of the existence of intermediate phenotypes in PRS-I deficiency syndromes and demonstrate that females can exhibit a disease phenotype as severe and complex as their male counterparts. Source


Jiang R.,Beijing Genome Institute Shenzhen | Lu Y.-T.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Ho H.,University of California | Ho H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 32 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Previous studies have demonstrated focal but limited molecular similarities between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and biopsies using isolated genetic assays. We hypothesized that molecular similarity between CTCs and tissue exists at the single cell level when characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). By combining the NanoVelcro CTC Chip with laser capture microdissection (LCM), we developed a platform for single-CTC WGS. We performed this procedure on CTCs and tissue samples from a patient with advanced prostate cancer who had serial biopsies over the course of his clinical history. We achieved 30X depth and ≥ 95% coverage. Twenty-nine percent of the somatic single nucleotide variations (SSNVs) identified were founder mutations that were also identified in CTCs. In addition, 86% of the clonal mutations identified in CTCs could be traced back to either the primary or metastatic tumors. In this patient, we identified structural variations (SVs) including an intrachromosomal rearrangement in chr3 and an interchromosomal rearrangement between chr13 and chr15. These rearrangements were shared between tumor tissues and CTCs. At the same time, highly heterogeneous short structural variants were discovered in PTEN, RB1, and BRCA2 in all tumor and CTC samples. Using high-quality WGS on single-CTCs, we identified the shared genomic alterations between CTCs and tumor tissues. This approach yielded insight into the heterogeneity of the mutational landscape of SSNVs and SVs. It may be possible to use this approach to study heterogeneity and characterize the biological evolution of a cancer during the course of its natural history. Source

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