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Pourali M.,The Green Way | Mosleh A.,University of Maryland University College
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability | Year: 2013

Sensors are being increasingly used to monitor the functional state of complex systems. Sensors are used to make observation of physical quantities. The measured quantities are expected to provide information about the state of the system, its subsystems, components, and internal and external physical parameters. A complex system normally requires many sensors to extract required information from the sensed environment. In most cases, the problem of optimal sensor placement is difficult, because it requires optimization under uncertainty. This research developed new algorithms for sensor placement optimization under uncertainty and utilized them in a new system reliability monitoring approach. The overall methodology is designed to answer important questions such as how to infer the reliability of a system based on a limited number of sensor information points at certain subsystems (upward propagation); how to infer the reliability of a subsystem based on knowledge of the reliability of a main system (downward propagation); how to infer the reliability of a subsystem based on knowledge of the reliability of other subsystems (distributed propagation); and what are the optimum locations of sensors to provide the best estimate of system reliability. © IMechE 2013. Source


Coifman B.,Ohio State University | Jain M.,The Green Way
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2016

Efficient management of a freeway network requires continuous decision making on the basis of measured traffic conditions. These measurements usually come from fixed-point sensors deployed in a manner that requires communication links that are always on and are polled at regular intervals. Most of the time, when the sensor data are received at a traffic management center (TMC), no action is taken in response to the information. The high power consumption for the frequent transmissions becomes burdensome for wireless sensors that rely on batteries to last through periods without sufficient illumination for solar power or for the entire life span of the sensor if it has no external power supply. Radio transmissions are a large power draw, so each transmission that can be avoided directly translates into longer battery life. To reduce communication frequency without a significant loss in the quality of information, a distributed freeway surveillance system was developed that prefilters the data at the sensor unit. Five communication modes were developed that assess the value of the measurements before the decision is made to send or not send the measurements. Key to this event-driven approach is that the receiving end is an intelligent part of the distributed surveillance system (i.e., given the lack of transmission, the TMC will know how to interpret the evolving traffic state at the sensor location in the context of previously received information). Source


Valente S.,The Green Way
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: The time before dying can be extremely challenging and stressful. Gaps in end-of-life care include inadequate communication, education about end-of-life options, symptom control, and management of common mental illnesses (eg, mood disorders, dementia), and death anxiety. Psychiatric nurses are in a pivotal position to help address these gaps and improve end-of-life care. Psychiatric nurses can facilitate communication about end of life, educate patients about options, and provide consultation, assessment, and management of common psychosocial needs (eg, mood disorders, grief, and loss). Objective: This survey examined psychiatric nurses' perspectives of their skills, knowledge, expertise, continuing education needs, and recommendations for the role of the psychiatric nurse. Study design: Using a descriptive design, we surveyed a convenience sample of psychiatric nurses from the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. Results: Psychiatric nurses reported they were skilled in discussions of difficult topics, evaluation of mental status, and assessment and management of mood disorders, grief, and suicide risk. However, nurses asked for continuing education in focusing these skills for end of life, knowing the needs of the dying patient, and differentiating depression and dementia at end of life. Requests for continuing education on end-of-life care included issues about how to apply these psychiatric skills and knowledge to the dying patient and their families. Conclusions: Psychiatric nurses have skills and knowledge to reduce the gaps in end-of-life care. Many request continuing education to assist them to expand and focus their knowledge to use their psychosocial skills and to develop a specialty area in end-of-life care. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Helenon F.,University of Bristol | Helenon F.,The Green Way | Wisnom M.R.,University of Bristol | Hallett S.R.,University of Bristol | Trask R.S.,University of Bristol
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2013

This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation into failure of T-shaped laminated composite structures. Three out-of-plane bending cases with loads at angles of 0, 45 and 90 are studied. It is found that very high free-edge maximum principal transverse tensile stresses perpendicular to the fibre direction occur at the failure locations. The use of the "High Stress Concentration method" demonstrates that these are responsible for the specimens' failure. It is also demonstrated that this tool is very useful for stress engineers who mainly rely on linear elastic analyses to design complex laminated composite components. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.4 | Award Amount: 5.08M | Year: 2013

The Internet of the Future will be an essential part of the knowledge society and will provide new information-based business. The usage of the Internet of Things for large-scale, partially mission-critical systems creates the need to address trust and security functions adequately.
The vision of SMARTIE (Secure and sMArterciTIEs data management) is to create a distributed framework for IoT based applications sharing large volumes of heterogeneous information. This framework is envisioned to enable end-to-end security and trust in information delivery for decision-making purposes following data owners privacy requirements. New challenges identified for privacy, trust and reliability are:
Provide trust and quality-of-information in shared information models to enable re-used across many applications. Provide secure exchange of data between IoT devices and consumers of their information. Provide protection mechanisms for vulnerable devices.
SMARTIE will address these challenges within the context of Smart Cities. A smart city controller handling data for the city must show that the information collected from different devices are communicated and stored in a secure way. Privacy-protection and access control to the data and objects is necessary to convince data owners to share information and to protect the city infrastructure. SMARTIE envisions a data-centric paradigm with the information management and services plane as a unifying umbrella, which will operate above heterogeneous network devices and data sources and will provide advanced secure information services.The feasibility and utility of SMARTIE will be tested in real environments with real users of the city infrastructures. The two application areas Transport and Energy will be considered; both are key infrastructures of cities. The tests will involve the cities Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany), Belgrade (Serbia) and Murcia (Spain).

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