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Genève, Switzerland

Mullan K.,North Carolina State University | Kontoleon A.,University of Cambridge | Swanson T.,The Graduate Institute | Zhang S.,Beihang University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2011

Competing uses of land mean that regulations aimed at environmental conservation often conflict with the land-use rights of rural households. Several reports suggest that this has occurred with the introduction of the Natural Forest Protection Programme (NFPP) in China, one of the world's largest logging ban programmes. This paper investigates whether households should be compensated for infringements on property rights, drawing on institutional economics literature on regulation. We distinguish between cases where regulation solves local collective action problems and increases the welfare of those affected, and those where regulation involves a redistribution of rights from one group to another. We apply this to the NFPP by estimating the net welfare impacts, using household level stated preference data with econometric techniques that explicitly account for zero and negative values of the dependent variable. We find that the ban on logging does not affect the net welfare of the affected forest communities. This indicates that the losses resulting from the restrictions on property rights are offset by the benefits from restrictions on other local households. We also find evidence that a partial reduction in logging would be welfare increasing, indicating that the NFPP is to some extent addressing local collective action problems in forest areas. Broader implications for the question of compensating for infringement of property rights as the result of regulatory interventions in contexts of institutional imperfections are also drawn. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Biersteker T.,The Graduate Institute
Globalizations | Year: 2014

Abstract: Drawing on the synthetic, open-ended dialectical approach developed in the Dialectics of World Orders Project, this article explores three global doctrinal debates (fusing ideas and policy practices) in three different periods that have shaped global security in the twentieth century. The article focuses first on a detailed examination of the system of great power balancing that opened the twentieth century, with special attention to its internal logic, inner workings (rules and practices), its internal contradictions, and how they generated a demand for greater institutionalization and the establishment of a system of collective security. The breakdown of collective security under the League is considered, and its re-emergence within the UN system (in a transformed state), and its subsequent marginalization by superpower Cold War power balancing in the post WWII period is described next. Again, the internal logic, inner workings (rules and practices), and internal contradictions of the security system of Cold War bipolarity are described, as well as how its collapse generated space for a more effective collective security system in the post-Cold War period. The current contestation over norms of intervention, the redefinition of sovereignty, power transitions, responses to transnational threats, and emergent elements of the contemporary security order are also identified. The article concludes with some reflections on insights gained from looking at global security debates through dialectical lenses. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Simoni V.,University of Lisbon | Simoni V.,The Graduate Institute
Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change | Year: 2014

Building on tourism scholarship on existential authenticity, touristic intimacy, and the limitations of the tourist role, the article provides an empirically grounded analysis of how the value of intimacy was expressed and negotiated in the course of encounters between foreign tourists and members of the visited population in Cuba. Tourism-related identifications in this Caribbean country are shaped by local notions of tourism hustling and pose a challenge to the development of mutually gratifying relationships between tourists and Cubans. The exploration of Cubans' concerns and informal ways of approaching tourists, and of the ways in which friendships, partying, and sexual engagements between them were enacted, highlights the efforts of the protagonists of these encounters to achieve relationships that could help them move beyond negative identifications and lead to the recognition of their individuality and shared humanity as persons. Intimacy appears as a fundamental regime of value informing these processes. The reflections that the article develops on the concrete manifestations of intimacy in touristic encounters and the kind of alliances it prompted open the way for further research on the role played by international tourism in the diffusion and actualization of this regime of value. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Eichengreen B.,University of California at Berkeley | Panizza U.,The Graduate Institute
Economic Policy | Year: 2016

IMF forecasts and the EU's Fiscal Compact foresee Europe's heavily indebted countries running primary budget surpluses of as much as 5 percent of GDP for as long as 10 years in order to maintain debt sustainability and bring their debt/GDP ratios down to the Compact's 60 percent target. We show that primary surpluses this large and persistent are rare. In an extensive sample of high- and middle-income countries there are just three (non-overlapping) episodes where countries ran primary surpluses of at least 5 per cent of GDP for 10 years. Analyzing a less restrictive definition of persistent surplus episodes (primary surpluses averaging at least 3 percent of GDP for five years), we find that surplus episodes are more likely when growth is strong, when the current account of the balance of payments is in surplus (savings rates are high), when the debt-to-GDP ratio is high (heightening the urgency of fiscal adjustment), and when the governing party controls all houses of parliament or congress (its bargaining position is strong). Left wing governments, strikingly, are more likely to run large, persistent primary surpluses. In advanced countries, proportional representation electoral systems that give rise to encompassing coalitions are associated with surplus episodes. The point estimates do not provide much encouragement for the view that high-debt European countries will be able to run a primary budget surplus as large and persistent as officially projected. © 2016 CEPR, CESifo, Sciences Po. Source

Djajic S.,The Graduate Institute | Michael M.S.,University of Cyprus
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2013

This article examines the interaction between migration policies of the host and source countries in the context of a model of guest-worker migration. For the host, the objective is to provide low-cost labor for its employers while avoiding illegal immigration. It optimizes over these objectives by setting the time limit of a guest-worker permit. The source country seeks remittance flows and return migration by offering fiscal benefits to returnees. Within this framework, we solve for the Nash equilibrium values of the migration policy instruments and compare them, to the extent possible, with the ones that emerge in a cooperative setting. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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